American Government And Politics Today 2016 Pdf

american government and politics today 2016 pdf

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The new media environment is dynamic and continues to develop in novel, sometimes unanticipated, ways that have serious consequences for democratic governance and politics. New media have radically altered the way that government institutions operate, the way that political leaders communicate, the manner in which elections are contested, and citizen engagement.

[PDF] American Government and Politics Today: Essentials 2015-2016 Edition (with MindTap Political

The new media environment is dynamic and continues to develop in novel, sometimes unanticipated, ways that have serious consequences for democratic governance and politics. New media have radically altered the way that government institutions operate, the way that political leaders communicate, the manner in which elections are contested, and citizen engagement.

This chapter will briefly address the evolution of new media, before examining in greater detail their role in and consequences for political life. New political media are forms of communication that facilitate the production, dissemination, and exchange of political content on platforms and within networks that accommodate interaction and collaboration.

They have evolved rapidly over the past three decades, and continue to develop in novel, sometimes unanticipated ways. New media have wide-ranging implications for democratic governance and political practices. They have radically altered the ways in which government institutions operate and political leaders communicate. They have transformed the political media system, and redefined the role of journalists. They have redefined the way elections are contested, and how citizens engage in politics.

The rise of new media has complicated the political media system. Legacy media consisting of established mass media institutions that predate the Internet, such as newspapers, radio shows, and television news programs, coexist with new media that are the outgrowth of technological innovation. While legacy media maintain relatively stable formats, the litany of new media, which includes websites, blogs, video-sharing platforms, digital apps, and social media, are continually expanding in innovative ways.

Mass media designed to deliver general interest news to broad audiences have been joined by niche sources that narrowcast to discrete users Stroud, New media can relay information directly to individuals without the intervention of editorial or institutional gatekeepers, which are intrinsic to legacy forms. Thus, new media have introduced an increased level of instability and unpredictability into the political communication process.

The relationship between legacy media and new media is symbiotic. Legacy media have incorporated new media into their reporting strategies. They distribute material across an array of old and new communication platforms.

They rely on new media sources to meet the ever-increasing demand for content. Despite competition from new media, the audiences for traditional media remain robust, even if they are not as formidable as in the past.

Readers of the print edition of The New York Times and viewers of the nightly network news programs far outnumber those accessing the most popular political news websites Wired Staff, Cable and network television news remain the primary sources of political information for people over the age of thirty Mitchell and Holcomb, Consequently, new media rely on their legacy counterparts to gain legitimacy and popularize their content.

Ideally, the media serve several essential roles in a democratic society. Their primary purpose is to inform the public, providing citizens with the information needed to make thoughtful decisions about leadership and policy. The media act as watchdogs checking government actions. They set the agenda for public discussion of issues, and provide a forum for political expression. They also facilitate community building by helping people to find common causes, identify civic groups, and work toward solutions to societal problems.

New media have the potential to satisfy these textbook functions. They provide unprecedented access to information, and can reach even disinterested audience members through personalized, peer-to-peer channels, like Facebook.

As average people join forces with the established press to perform the watchdog role, public officials are subject to greater scrutiny. Issues and events that might be outside the purview of mainstream journalists can be brought into prominence by ordinary citizens.

New media can foster community building that transcends physical boundaries through their extensive networking capabilities. Although legacy media coverage of political events correlates with increased political engagement among the mass public, mainstream journalists do not believe that encouraging participation is their responsibility Hayes and Lawless, However, new media explicitly seek to directly engage the public in political activities, such as voting, contacting public officials, volunteering in their communities, and taking part in protest movements.

At the same time, the new media era has acerbated trends that undercut the ideal aims of a democratic press. The media disseminate a tremendous amount of political content, but much of the material is trivial, unreliable, and polarizing. The watchdog role pre-new media had been performed largely by trained journalists who, under the best of circumstances, focused on uncovering the facts surrounding serious political transgressions. Much news in the new media era is defined by coverage of a never-ending barrage of sensational scandals—be they real, exaggerated, or entirely fabricated—that often are only tangentially related to governing.

This chapter begins by briefly addressing the evolution of new media in the United States to establish the core characteristics of the current political media system. We then will focus on the role of media in providing information in a democratic polity, and will examine the ways in which new media have impacted this role.

The diversity of content disseminated by new media has created opportunities, such as the ability for more voices to be heard. However, the questionable quality of much of this information raises serious issues for democratic discourse. Next, we will discuss how the new media are integral to political coverage in a post-truth society, where falsehoods infused with tidbits of fact pass as news. Finally, we will contemplate the ways in which the watchdog press is being overshadowed by the mouthpiece press which serves as a publicity machine for politicians.

New media emerged in the late s when entertainment platforms, like talk radio, television talk shows, and tabloid newspapers, took on prominent political roles and gave rise to the infotainment genre. Infotainment obscures the lines between news and entertainment, and privileges sensational, scandal-driven stories over hard news Jebril, et al.

The infotainment emphasis of new media at this early stage offered political leaders and candidates a friendlier venue for presenting themselves to the public than did hard news outlets Moy, et al. The fusing of politics and entertainment attracted audiences that typically had been disinterested in public affairs Williams and Delli Carpini, Initially, the public responded positively to the more accessible communication channels, calling in to political talk programs and participating in online town hall meetings.

It was heavily dominated by commercial interests and those already holding privileged positions in politics and the news industry. Public enthusiasm eventually gave way to ambivalence and cynicism, especially as the novelty of the first phase of new media wore off Davis and Owen, The next phase in the development of new media unfolded in conjunction with the application of emerging digital communications technologies to politics that made possible entirely new outlets and content delivery systems.

The digital environment and the platforms it supports greatly transformed the political media system. The public became more involved with the actual production and distribution of political content. Citizen journalists were eyewitnesses to events that professional journalists did not cover. Non-elites offered their perspectives on political affairs to politicians and peers. Members of the public also were responsible for recording and posting videos that could go viral and influence the course of events Wallsten, The campaign made use of advanced digital media features that capitalized on the networking, collaboration, and community-building potential of social media to create a political movement.

The Obama campaign website was a full-service, multimedia center where voters not only could access information, they also could watch and share videos, view and distribute campaign ads, post comments, and blog.

Supporters could donate, volunteer, and purchase campaign logo items, like tee shirts and caps. The campaign was active on Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube, as well as a range of other social media platforms that catered to particular constituencies, such as BlackPlanet, AsianAve, and Glee.

The campaign pioneered digital microtargeting tactics. The new media trends established in the campaign have carried over to the realm of government and politics more generally. Social media have become a pervasive force in politics, altering the communication dynamics between political leaders, journalists, and the public. They have opened up wider avenues for instantaneous political discourse and debate. However, there also has been backlash when social media discourse has become too nasty, and users have blocked content or dropped out of their social media networks Linder, Social media allow people to efficiently organize and leverage their collective influence.

Thus, political leaders are held more accountable because their actions are constantly probed on social media. At the same time, legacy media organizations have come to rely on aspects of new media. Newspapers, in particular, have experienced financial hardships due adverse financial market conditions, declining advertising revenues, and competition from proliferating news sources.

The size of traditional newsrooms in the U. Legacy news organizations have cut investigative units, and only around one-third of reporters are assigned to political beats Mitchell and Holcomb, Mainstream journalists have come to rely heavily on new media content as a source of news.

These trends have seriously influenced the quality and nature of news content as well as the style of political reporting, which has become more heavily infused with infotainment and quotes from Twitter feeds. The complexities of the new media system are reflected in the diversity of available content.

In the new media era, the boundaries that separate these disparate types of information have become increasing muddled. Professional media editors who regulate the flow of information by applying news principles and standards associated with the public good have become scarce Willis, They have been replaced by social media and analytics editors whose primary motivation is to draw users to content regardless of its news value.

Audience members have to work hard to distinguish fact from fiction, and to differentiate what matters from what is inconsequential.

A number of explanations can be offered for the shift in the quality and quantity of political information. The technological affordances of new media allow content to propagate seemingly without limits. Social media have a dramatically different structure than previous media platforms. Content can be relayed with no significant third-party filtering, fact-checking, or editorial judgement. Individuals lacking prior journalism training or reputation can reach many users at lightningfast speed.

Messages multiply as they are shared across news platforms and via personal social networking accounts Allcott and Gentzkow, In addition, the economic incentives underpinning new media companies, such as Google, Facebook, and Twitter, are predicated on attracting large audiences that will draw advertising revenue.

Political content is used to drive consumers to social media products, rather than to perform the public service function of informing the citizenry. Commercial pressures lead media organizations to feature incendiary stories that receive the most attention.

Further, while platforms proliferate, similar content is dispersed widely as media power is concentrated in a small number of old and new media corporations McChesney, Search engines direct users to a limited selection of heavily trafficked and well-financed sites Hindman, ; Pariser, Other explanations focus on the nature of the American political environment that has become extremely polarized, prompting the emergence of political agendas that promote rogue politics.

A Pew Research Center study revealed that the gap between Democrats and Republicans on core political values, including the role of government, race, immigration, the social safety net, national security, taxes, and environmental protection, have grown to epic proportions for the modern era.

Two-thirds of Americans fall solidly in the liberal or conservative camp, with few holding a mix of ideological positions Pew Research Center, ; Kiley, Speech on new media reflects these stark political divisions, and frequently devolves into expressions of hostility and ad hominem attacks. President Donald Trump used Twitter to ignite a controversy over NFL players who protested racial oppression during the playing of the national anthem before games.

He used a derogatory term to refer to players, who are predominantly African American, and urged team owners to fire those supporting the demonstration. Modern-day new media echo chambers began to form during the first phase of new media, as conservative talk radio hosts, like Rush Limbaugh, attracted dedicated followers Jamieson and Cappella, Even politically disinterested social media users frequently encounter news articles unintentionally as they scan their feed Gottfried and Shearer,

American Government and Politics in the Information Age

The book provides the knowledge that allows students to make informed choices, encourages them to play an active role in the decision-making process, and promotes their enthusiastic participation in the world around them by providing the tools they need to get involved. The — edition's updates include in-depth coverage of the midterm elections. The book is also available without policy chapters. View More Purchase Options. Lynne E. Shelley II. Whether you're buying or renting textbooks, a great term starts right here.

Publisher: University of Minnesota Libraries Publishing. The book is fairly comprehensive, almost to a fault. There's little complexity and often concepts and events are oversimplified to their most basic elements. It reads more like soundbites in places, which is probably very appropriate and Comprehensiveness rating: 3 see less.

American Government and Politics in the Information Age

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Нельзя, чтобы Хейл что-то заподозрил. ГЛАВА 43 В свои сорок пять Чед Бринкерхофф отличался тем, что носил тщательно отутюженные костюмы, был всегда аккуратно причесан и прекрасно информирован. На легком летнем костюме, как и на загорелой коже, не было ни морщинки. Его густые волосы имели натуральный песочный оттенок, а глаза отливали яркой голубизной, которая только усиливалась слегка тонированными контактными линзами.

Он почувствовал, что умирает, и вполне логично предположил, что это наших рук. Тут все совпадает. Он решил, что мы добрались до него и, вероятно, отравили - ядом, вызывающим остановку сердца. Он понимал, что мы могли решиться на это только в одном случае - если нашли Северную Дакоту.

Фонтейн молча стоял. Сьюзан заглянула в распечатку через плечо Джаббы. - Выходит, нас атакует всего лишь первый набросок червя Танкадо. - Набросок или отшлифованный до блеска экземпляр, - проворчал Джабба, - но он дал нам под зад коленом.

 Ты, часом, не шутишь? - Он был едва ли не на полметра выше этого панка и тяжелее килограммов на двадцать. - С чего это ты взял, что я шучу. Беккер промолчал.

Наполнив тяжелый хрустальный стакан водой из фонтанчика, Беккер сделал несколько жадных глотков, потянулся и расправил плечи, стараясь сбросить алкогольное оцепенение, после чего поставил стакан на столик и направился к выходу. Когда он проходил мимо лифта, дверцы открылись. В кабине стоял какой-то мужчина.

Раздраженный водитель резко нажал на педаль тормоза, и Беккер почувствовал, как перемещается куда-то вес его тела. Он попробовал плюхнуться на заднее сиденье, но промахнулся. Тело его сначала оказалось в воздухе, а потом - на жестком полу. Из тени на авенида дель Сид появилась фигура человека. Поправив очки в железной оправе, человек посмотрел вслед удаляющемуся автобусу.

Продала кольцо и улетела. Он увидел уборщика и подошел к. - Has visto a una nina? - спросил он, перекрывая шум, издаваемый моечной машиной.

American Government and Politics Today - Cover1

 - Хейл вздохнул и повернулся к своему компьютеру.