Types Of Nuts And Bolts Pdf

types of nuts and bolts pdf

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The Stud Bolt is a threaded rod with 2 heavy hexagon nuts, while the Hex Bolt has a head with one nut. Nuts and head are both six sided. The quantity of bolts for a flange connection will be given by the number of bolt holes in a flange, diameter and length of bolts is dependent of flange type and Pressure Class of flange. The length in inches is equal to the effective thread length measured parallel to the axis, from the first to the first thread without the chamfers points.

Types of Bolts and Their Uses

A screw and a bolt see Differentiation between bolt and screw below are similar types of fastener typically made of metal, and characterized by a helical ridge, known as a male thread external thread.

Screws and bolts are used to fasten materials by the engagement of the screw thread with a similar female thread internal thread in the matching part.

Screws are often self-threading also known as self-tapping where the thread cuts into the material when the screw is turned, creating an internal thread that helps pull fastened materials together and prevent pull-out. There are many screws for a variety of materials; those commonly fastened by screws include wood, sheet metal, and plastic. A screw is a combination of simple machines —it is, in essence, an inclined plane wrapped around a central shaft, but the inclined plane thread also comes to a sharp edge around the outside, which acts a wedge as it pushes into the fastened material, and the shaft and helix also form a wedge in the form of the point.

Some screw threads are designed to mate with a complementary thread, known as a female thread internal thread , often in the form of a nut, or object that has the internal thread formed into it. Other screw threads are designed to cut a helical groove in a softer material as the screw is inserted. The most common uses of screws are to hold objects together and to position objects. A screw will usually have a head on one end that allows it to be turned with a tool.

Common tools for driving screws include screwdrivers and wrenches. The head is usually larger than the body of the screw, which keeps the screw from being driven deeper than the length of the screw and to provide a bearing surface. There are exceptions. Carriage bolts have a domed head that is not designed to be driven. Set screws often have a head smaller than the outer diameter of the screw. Headless set screws are also called grub screws.

J-bolts have a J-shaped head that is not designed to be driven but rather is usually sunk into concrete allowing it to be used as an anchor bolt. The cylindrical portion of the screw from the underside of the head to the tip is known as the shank ; it may be fully threaded or partially threaded.

The majority of screws are tightened by clockwise rotation, which is termed a right-hand thread ; [3] [4] a common mnemonic device for remembering this when working with screws or bolts is "righty-tighty, lefty-loosey". If the fingers of the right hand are curled around a right-hand thread, it will move in the direction of the thumb when turned in the same direction as the fingers are curled.

Screws with left-hand threads are used in exceptional cases, where loads would tend to loosen a right-handed fastener, or when non-interchangeability with right-hand fasteners is required. For example, when the screw will be subject to counterclockwise torque which would work to undo a right-hand thread , a left-hand-threaded screw would be an appropriate choice.

The left side pedal of a bicycle has a left-hand thread. More generally, a screw may mean any helical device, such as a clamp, a micrometer , a ship's propeller , or an Archimedes' screw water pump. There is no universally accepted distinction between a screw and a bolt.

A simple distinction that is often true, although not always, is that a bolt passes through a substrate and takes a nut on the other side, whereas a screw takes no nut because it threads directly into the substrate a screw screws into something , a bolt bolts several things together. So, as a general rule, when buying a packet of "screws", nuts would not be expected to be included, but bolts are often sold with matching nuts. Part of the confusion over this is likely due to regional or dialectical differences.

Machinery's Handbook describes the distinction as follows:. A bolt is an externally threaded fastener designed for insertion through holes in assembled parts, and is normally intended to be tightened or released by torquing a nut.

A screw is an externally threaded fastener capable of being inserted into holes in assembled parts, of mating with a preformed internal thread or forming its own thread, and of being tightened or released by torquing the head. An externally threaded fastener which is prevented from being turned during assembly and which can be tightened or released only by torquing a nut is a bolt.

Example: round head bolts, track bolts, plow bolts. An externally threaded fastener that has thread form which prohibits assembly with a nut having a straight thread of multiple pitch length is a screw. Example: wood screws, tapping screws. The issue of what is a screw and what is a bolt is not completely resolved with Machinery's Handbook distinction, however, because of confounding terms, the ambiguous nature of some parts of the distinction, and usage variations.

Early wood screws were made by hand, with a series of files, chisels, and other cutting tools, and these can be spotted easily by noting the irregular spacing and shape of the threads, as well as file marks remaining on the head of the screw and in the area between threads.

Many of these screws had a blunt end, completely lacking the sharp tapered point on nearly all modern wood screws. Screws made with these tools have rounded valleys with sharp and rough threads. Once screw turning machines were in common use, most commercially available wood screws were produced with this method. These cut wood screws are almost invariably tapered, and even when the tapered shank is not obvious, they can be discerned because the threads do not extend past the diameter of the shank.

Such screws are best installed after drilling a pilot hole with a tapered drill bit. The majority of modern wood screws, except for those made of brass, are formed on thread rolling machines. These screws have a constant diameter, threads with a larger diameter than the shank, and are stronger because the rolling process does not cut the grain of the metal. These fasteners are often used as bolts with nuts, but also often driven into tapped holes without nuts.

They might be considered a screw or a bolt based on the Machinery's Handbook distinction. In practice, they tend to be mostly available in smaller sizes and the smaller sizes are referred to as screws or less ambiguously as machine screws, although some kinds of machine screw can be referred to as stove bolts. ASME standard B These fasteners are very similar to hex bolts. They differ mostly in that they are manufactured to tighter tolerances than the corresponding bolts.

Machinery's Handbook refers parenthetically to these fasteners as "Finished Hex Bolts". These terms refer to fasteners that are designed to be threaded into a tapped hole that is in part of the assembly and so based on the Machinery's Handbook distinction they would be screws. Here common terms are at variance with Machinery's Handbook distinction. Lag screws US or coach screws UK, Australia, and New Zealand also referred to as lag bolts or coach bolts , although this is a misnomer are large wood screws.

The head is typically an external hex. Metric hex-headed lag screws are covered by DIN A typical lag screw can range in diameter from 4 to 20 mm or 10 to 1. The materials are usually carbon steel substrate with a coating of zinc galvanization for corrosion resistance. The zinc coating may be bright electroplated , yellow electroplated , or dull gray hot-dip galvanized.

Lag screws are used to lag together lumber framing, to lag machinery feet to wood floors, and for other heavy carpentry applications. The attributive modifier lag came from an early principal use of such fasteners: the fastening of lags such as barrel staves and other similar parts. These fasteners are "screws" according to the Machinery's Handbook criteria, and the obsolescent term "lag bolt" has been replaced by "lag screw" in the Handbook. The federal government of the United States made an effort to formalize the difference between a bolt and a screw, because different tariffs apply to each.

Old USS and SAE standards defined cap screws as fasteners with shanks that were threaded to the head and bolts as fasteners with shanks that were partially unthreaded. This is now an obsolete distinction, although large bolts still often have unthreaded sections of shank. Although there is no reason to consider this definition obsolete, because it is far from clear that "a bolt by definition takes a nut". Using a coach "bolt" as an example and it has been a 'bolt' for a very long time.

It was not originally intended to receive a nut, but did have a shank. Its purpose was not to pass through the entire substrate but only one piece of it, while the threaded portion bit into the other in order to draw, and clamp the materials together. The 'carriage' bolt was derived from this and was employed more to speed up manufacturing than achieve a different function. The carriage bolt passes through both pieces of materials and employs a nut to provide the clamping force.

Both are still, however, bolts. The distinctions above are enforced in the controlled vocabulary of standards organizations. Nevertheless, there are sometimes differences between the controlled vocabulary and the natural language use of the words by machinists, auto mechanics and others. These differences reflect linguistic evolution shaped by the changing of technology over centuries.

The words bolt and screw have both existed since before today's modern mix of fastener types existed, and the natural usage of those words has evolved retronymously in response to the technological change.

That is, the use of words as names for objects changes as the objects change. Non-threaded fasteners predominated until the advent of practical, inexpensive screw-cutting in the early 19th century. The basic meaning of the word screw has long involved the idea of a helical screw thread, but the Archimedes screw and the screw gimlet like a corkscrew preceded the fastener. The word bolt is also a very old word, and it was used for centuries to refer to metal rods that passed through the substrate to be fastened on the other side, often via nonthreaded means clinching, forge welding, pinning, wedging, etc.

The connection of this sense to the sense of a door bolt or the crossbow bolt is apparent. In the 19th century, bolts fastened via screw threads were often called screw bolts in contradistinction to clench bolts. In common usage, the distinction not rigorous is often that screws are smaller than bolts, and that screws are generally tapered while bolts are not.

For example, cylinder head bolts are called "bolts" at least in North American usage despite the fact that by some definitions they ought to be called "screws". Their size and their similarity to a bolt that would take a nut seem linguistically to overrule any other factors in this natural word choice proclivity. Screws are then defined as headed, externally threaded fasteners that do not meet the above definition of bolts.

And it is for that reason, perhaps, that some people favor them. However, they are neither compliant with common usage of the two words nor are they compliant with formal specifications.

A possible distinction is that a screw is designed to cut its own thread; it has no need for access from or exposure to the opposite side of the component being fastened to. This definition of screw is further reinforced by the consideration of the developments of fasteners such as Tek Screws, with either round or hex heads, for roof cladding, self-drilling and self-tapping screws for various metal fastening applications, roof batten screws to reinforce the connection between the roof batten and the rafter, decking screws etc.

On the other hand, a bolt is the male part of a fastener system designed to be accepted by a pre-equipped socket or nut of exactly the same thread design.

Threaded fasteners either have a tapered shank or a non-tapered shank. Fasteners with tapered shanks are designed to either be driven into a substrate directly or into a pilot hole in a substrate. Mating threads are formed in the substrate as these fasteners are driven in. Fasteners with a non-tapered shank are generally designed to mate with a nut or to be driven into a tapped hole. Lag bolts are usually used with an expanding insert called a lag in masonry or concrete walls, the lag manufactured with a hard metal jacket that bites into the sides of the drilled hole, and the inner metal in the lag being a softer alloy of lead, or zinc alloyed with soft iron.

The coarse thread of a lag bolt and lag mesh and deform slightly making a secure near water tight anti-corroding mechanically strong fastening. In addition to the series design, other head designs include low head, button head and flat head, the latter designed to be seated into countersunk holes. A hex key sometimes referred to as an Allen wrench or Allen key or hex driver is required to tighten or loosen a socket screw.

Socket head capscrews are commonly used in assemblies that do not provide sufficient clearance for a conventional wrench or socket.

Types of Bolts, Nuts, and Washers | A Complete Guide on Fasteners

All fasteners perform the same function—mechanically joining and securing two or more parts together. Understanding the functional varieties of the different types available, including nuts, bolts, and washers, is essential to selecting the appropriate fastener and fastener supplier for your project. The following guide outlines a small selection of the types of fasteners available in our total inventory to help you choose the optimal product for your fastening application. Bolts are one of the most versatile structural fasteners, available in a vast array of configurations to suit different materials and strength requirements. These fasteners differ primarily in thread specification, length, and head shape, with varying combinations of these characteristics resulting in bolts with different functions.

In this article, you will learn about the types of nuts and bolts. A bolt contains two parts a shank and head. The cylindrical portion of the bolt is known as the shank. The shank is threaded at the tail end for a sufficient length so as to effectively engage with a nut. The shape of the head is depended upon the purpose for which bolt is required.

Fasteners come in many different forms. Scroll down to learn about many different types of nuts, bolts and screws! Screws use their threads to provide their own holding power. The terms in the industry are commonly mixed so sometimes you will see something that is called a screw or a bolt that is actually the opposite. Example: Lag Bolts and Lag Screws are the same thing. We have broken them down according to their true definition. The square section under the head grips into the part being fastened preventing the bolt from turning when the nut is tightened.

Anti-vibration Self-Lock Screw and Flange Nut set with Low Neck. All metal design. Type Description. A4. Qty/Pack. A4. S-M LS-.

Bolt And Nut Size Chart

A bolt is a form of threaded fastener with an external male thread requiring a matching pre-formed female thread such as a nut. Bolts are very closely related to screws. The distinction between a bolt and a screw is poorly-defined. The academic distinction, per Machinery's Handbook , [2] is in their intended design: bolts are designed to pass through an unthreaded hole in a component and be fastened with the aid of a nut , although such a fastener can be used without a nut to tighten into a threaded component such as a nut-plate or tapped housing. Screws in contrast are used in components which contain their own thread, or to cut its own internal thread into them.

A nut is a type of fastener with a threaded hole. Nuts are almost always used in conjunction with a mating bolt to fasten multiple parts together. The two partners are kept together by a combination of their threads' friction with slight elastic deformation , a slight stretching of the bolt, and compression of the parts to be held together.

A screw and a bolt see Differentiation between bolt and screw below are similar types of fastener typically made of metal, and characterized by a helical ridge, known as a male thread external thread. Screws and bolts are used to fasten materials by the engagement of the screw thread with a similar female thread internal thread in the matching part. Screws are often self-threading also known as self-tapping where the thread cuts into the material when the screw is turned, creating an internal thread that helps pull fastened materials together and prevent pull-out. There are many screws for a variety of materials; those commonly fastened by screws include wood, sheet metal, and plastic.

Bolts belong to the family of threaded fasteners and are paired with a threaded nut when in use, usually to join two or more components together. Bolts are classified into different types according to their distinct head shapes, strengths, finishes and materials. Types of bolts and their uses.

Nut (hardware)

The size conversion among the various EU, US and UK size charts may in some cases involve differences of a few mm, meaning a single EU size could correspond to several Please refer to our size conversion chart to identify the match. For lengths longer than specified above, see Depth of Thread Chart. All sizes are in inches. A stud bolt per the B Cap screws and hex bolts have heads designed for tightening to exact specifications with ratchets or spanner torque wrenches. But neither the external threads of the bolt nor the internal threads of the nut are exactly.

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Extra Information About Fasteners

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