File Name: concept construct and variable in communication research .zip
- Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper
- 2.2: Concepts, Constructs, and Variables
- NOTES ON COMMUNICATION RESEARCH(1)
Theories are formulated to explain, predict, and understand phenomena and, in many cases, to challenge and extend existing knowledge, within the limits of the critical bounding assumptions. The theoretical framework is the structure that can hold or support a theory of a research study.
Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper
Dependent Variable The variable that depends on other factors that are measured. These variables are expected to change as a result of an experimental manipulation of the independent variable or variables. It is the presumed effect. Independent Variable The variable that is stable and unaffected by the other variables you are trying to measure. It refers to the condition of an experiment that is systematically manipulated by the investigator. It is the presumed cause. Cramer, Duncan and Dennis Howitt.
The first step in the measurement process is to define the concepts we are studying. Researchers generate concepts by generalizing from particular facts. Concepts are based on our experiences. Concepts can be based on real phenomena and are a generalized idea of something of meaning. Constructs: Constructs are measured with multiple variables. Constructs exist at a higher level of abstraction than concepts. Justice, Beauty, Happiness, and Health are all constructs.
2.2: Concepts, Constructs, and Variables
We discussed in Chapter 1 that although research can be exploratory, descriptive, or explanatory, most scientific research tend to be of the explanatory type in that they search for potential explanations of observed natural or social phenomena. Explanations require development of concepts or generalizable properties or characteristics associated with objects, events, or people. Knowingly or unknowingly, we use different kinds of concepts in our everyday conversations. Some of these concepts have been developed over time through our shared language. Sometimes, we borrow concepts from other disciplines or languages to explain a phenomenon of interest.
Sources: Amanda Leggett: Constructs, variables and operationalization,. ; Hair, Marketing concepts. ▻ To understand and communicate information about process whereby researchers specify empirical concepts that can be taken.
NOTES ON COMMUNICATION RESEARCH(1)
Theoretical propositions consist of relationships between abstract constructs. Testing theories i. Measurement refers to careful, deliberate observations of the real world and is the essence of empirical research.
Research involves constantly moving back and forth from an empirical plane where observations are conducted to a theoretical plane where these observations are abstracted into generalizable laws and theories. This is a skill that takes many years to develop, is not something that is taught in graduate or doctoral programs or acquired in industry training, and is by far the biggest deficit amongst Ph. Some of the mental abstractions needed to think like a researcher include unit of analysis, constructs, hypotheses, operationalization, theories, models, induction, deduction, and so forth, which we will examine in this chapter.
Conceptualization is a process of defining meaning of the terms used in a study e. Utilizing prior research provides a basis for creating agreement upon variable conceptualization within the field. However, when reviewing a scholarly article, it is common and important for researchers to critically question how something is conceptualized and how it is operationalized. This entry focuses on conceptualization in the variable construction process:. Researchers use various terminologies throughout the conceptual, theoretical, and empirical stages of research.
Казалось, вспыхнувшая на его глазах перепалка абсолютно его не касается. Очевидно, Стратмор вдруг задумался:. У Сьюзан имелся на это ответ. - Коммандер, - она снова попыталась настоять на своем, - нам нужно поговорить.