File Name: endotracheal tube parts and function .zip
- Endotracheal tube management during mechanical ventilation: less is more!
- Tracheal tube
- ENDOTRACHEAL TUBE: PARTS, TYPES AND FUNCTIONS.
Endotracheal tube management during mechanical ventilation: less is more!
Metrics details. Wire-reinforced endotracheal tubes WRETs have a layered structure in which metal wire is embedded in the wall of the tube shaft.
This structure makes the tube resistant to kinking caused by angulated forces and improves patient safety [ 1 ]. WRETs are useful for head and neck surgery during which kinking of the tube is likely to occur [ 2 ]. However, the use of a WRET may be associated with several problems causing the partial or total occlusion of the tube. There are numerous reports of obstruction of WRETs due to dissection of the layered structure [ 3 , 4 ], patient bite [ 2 , 5 ], or compression by surgical devices [ 1 ].
A year-old, cm, kg female patient underwent neck lymph node resection under general anesthesia. A WRET of 7. The neck of the patient was extended, and the respiratory circuit was fixed with a flexible circuit holder ACOMA, Japan.
During the procedure, the surgeon moved the circuit holder to improve his working space. Subsequently, the peak airway pressure gradually increased from 16 cmH 2 O to a maximum of 28 cmH 2 O without a marked change in the waveform of capnography, increase in end-tidal CO 2 , or decrease in SpO 2.
The surgical procedure was not aborted and was finished uneventfully. After the removal of the surgical drapes, kinking of the tube causing obstruction was observed Fig. The patient recovered from general anesthesia without complications. Kinking of the WRET after surgery. The WRET kinked at the portion between the end of the embedded coiled wire in the tube and the tip of the plastic slip joint red arrowheads.
We chose 10 tubes randomly from the stock in our hospital. Moreover, the tube kinked with an angulated force that was not applied directly to the tube. Thus, kinking of WRETs may occur in clinical situations. Red arrowheads indicate the wireless portion. The endotracheal tube must be kept at an adequate angle to avoid kinking, even when using a wire-reinforced tube. Impending complete airway obstruction from a reinforced orotracheal tube: a case report. Acta Med Iran. Neck contracture release and reinforced tracheal tube obstruction.
Anesth Analg. The dissection of a reinforced endotracheal tube causing near-fatal intraoperative airway obstruction. Obstruction of a non-resterilized reinforced endotracheal tube during craniotomy under general anesthesia. Anesth Essays Res. Ball JE, Platt S.
Obstruction of a reinforced oral tracheal tube. Br J Anaesth. Download references. TW was the primary anesthesiologist and drafted the manuscript. HI helped to draft the manuscript. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript. Correspondence to Takuhiko Wakamatsu. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Reprints and Permissions. Wakamatsu, T.
JA Clin Rep 5, 22 Download citation. Received : 23 January Accepted : 27 February Published : 16 March Skip to main content. Search all SpringerOpen articles Search. Download PDF. To the Editor,.
Full size image. References 1. Acknowledgements Not applicable. Funding None. Availability of data and materials Not applicable. View author publications. Ethics declarations Ethics approval and consent to participate Not applicable. Consent for publication Written informed consent was obtained from the patient. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. About this article. Cite this article Wakamatsu, T.
It is also used to deliver or administer anaesthetic gases to patients during surgery. Endotracheal tube has inner and outer diameter. The inner diameter ID is the diameter of the tube lumen while the outer diameter OD measures the diameter of the lumen and the thickness of the tube. The size of the tube is determined by the inner diameter. For instance, if the inner diameter of a tube is 7. The normal length for adult male is cm while that of adult female is cm.
ENDOTRACHEAL TUBE: PARTS, TYPES AND FUNCTIONS.
Care of the endotracheal tube ETT is frequently not the primary focus of ventilatory management of the critically ill, but it does have a major impact on the trajectory of recovery and complications that can extend long after the patient is extubated. Much of the approach to manage the airway is based on long-standing assumptions, not founded on evidence. As with all aspects of caring for the patient on mechanical ventilation MV , evidenced-based medicine should be the rule. All aspects of airway care should be based on what is most appropriate for the patient. The ETT is a conduit for the aspiration of contaminated oral secretions [ 1 ].
An endotracheal tube is a flexible plastic tube that is placed through the mouth into the trachea windpipe to help a patient breathe. The endotracheal tube is then connected to a ventilator, which delivers oxygen to the lungs. The process of inserting the tube is called endotracheal intubation.
Endotracheal intubation prevents the cough reflex and interferes with normal muco-ciliary function, therefore increasing airway secretion production and decreasing the ability to clear secretions. Endotracheal tube ETT suction is necessary to clear secretions and to maintain airway patency, and to therefore optimise oxygenation and ventilation in a ventilated patient. ETT suction is a common procedure carried out on intubated infants.