File Name: environmental radioecology and applied ecology .zip
Selected papers: Preface. Modelling of radiocesium in lakes — on predictive power and lessons for the future L. Present thoughts on the aquatic countermeasures applied to regions of the Dnieper river catchment contaminated by the Chernobyl accident O.
- Environmental Radioactivity and Ecotoxicology of Radioactive Substances, Introduction to
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- Freshwater and Estuarine Radioecology, Volume 68
- Radioecology: nuclear energy and the environment
Nations and international organizations are now working to define what such goals should be, with the UN playing an important role in these developments.
Whicker, K. Bunzl, P. Dixon, M. Scott, S.
Environmental Radioactivity and Ecotoxicology of Radioactive Substances, Introduction to
Nations and international organizations are now working to define what such goals should be, with the UN playing an important role in these developments. A priority is to identify a post agenda, as is the year the MDG objectives are to be achieved. The MDGs have been successful in focusing efforts on, and encouraging a global political consensus around, issues such as hunger, gender inequality, poverty, and disease. A key to their success is that the MDGs are a short list of clear and coherent goals that have focused on well-recognized global problems.
Initial indications suggest that the SDGs will also be structured as a relatively short set of coherent, aspirational goals. Various political actors have put forward proposals containing different numbers and types of goals, but most proposals seem to be consolidating around the core issues of poverty, gender equality, education, health, food security, water and sanitation, energy, jobs, natural resources, governance, and climate change. However, the MDGs have been criticized for their narrow focus on the human aspects of development, while overlooking the importance of natural capital and ecosystem services Waage et al.
Further, the existing MDG framework fails to capture the complex interdependencies between the goals, and there is little cross-referencing between targets and indicators Waage et al. The MDGs have also been criticized for placing obligations only on developing countries, and for not having the universal ambition of transforming sustainability pathways. The new goals are likely to expand the MDGs Sachs , but if the SDGs are to galvanize governments and civil society to confront the interlinked social, economic, and ecological challenges of the Anthropocene Steffen et al.
The Anthropocene is the new geological epoch Crutzen , which is characterized by humanity having become the dominant force of planetary change Steffen et al. At the same time, people are fundamentally dependent on the capacity of the biosphere to provide services for human wellbeing and societal development MEA Navigating the Anthropocene in order to steer away from such thresholds will require major shifts in values and beliefs, patterns of social behavior, and multilevel governance and management regimes Biermann et al.
Clearly, the complex governance demands of the Anthropocene provide an important context for the framing of the future SDGs but clash with the idea of simple, modular goals for specific, bounded development problems. We argue that the formulation, substance, and implementation of the SDGs should be framed by three key insights from a growing transdisciplinary body of work that is fusing ecology, economics, psychology, global governance, and socio-technological systems studies.
First, human and natural systems are inseparably linked and nested across scales, and should be dealt with as social-ecological systems. Second, SDGs must acknowledge and navigate trade-offs between goal ambition and goal feasibility. Third, both the formulation of the SDGs and all implementation efforts should be guided by existing knowledge about the drivers, dynamics, and limitations of social change processes at all scales, from the individual to the global.
In the remainder, we discuss some of the key implications these three insights should have for the formulation and implementation of the SDGs. Mounting research is showing that people are part of ecosystems and shape them, from local to global scales, and are at the same time fundamentally dependent on the capacity of these systems to provide services for human wellbeing and societal development. Ecosystem services are the benefits that natural ecosystems provide to people, and are often distinguished as 1 provisioning services, such as food production; 2 regulating services, such as flood defense, which maintain a resilient environment and protect against environmental disturbance; 3 cultural services, which are reflected in religious, recreational, or cultural values and practices; and 4 supporting services, which comprise the underlying ecological structures and processes on which all other services rely.
SDGs should be designed to enhance the awareness of, and focus on, the role of ecosystem services within not alongside economic development and poverty reduction. Similarly, targets for SDGs that are focused on the environment need to be formulated not only in favor of preserving the biosphere but also to ensure continued societal development. This would align the SDGs with the increasing calls by global policy fora and agencies e.
The newly established Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services can play a critical role in addressing the needs of the SDG framework to incorporate knowledge about the complex relationship between ecosystem services and human society. In the Anthropocene, the spatial and temporal scales of interdependency between human and ecological systems are changing profoundly Young et al.
Processes such as human migration, trade, transnational land acquisitions, spread of invasive species, and technology transfer are now more prevalent and occur more quickly than ever before, facilitated by a global infrastructure for the movement of people, goods, services, diseases, and information Butchart et al.
Because of this increasingly tight coupling of distant systems through social-ecological linkages, actions taken in seemingly independent places affect the interlinked global social-ecological system in unexpected ways, with surprising mixes of immediate consequences as well as cascading and distant effects Biggs et al.
For example, addressing climate change goals through biofuel investments in one place may increase global greenhouse gas emissions and threaten local food security due to indirect land use changes in remote locations Searchinger et al.
Similarly, successfully increasing food production and biodiversity conservation in one region, and navigating the trade-off between these dual goals, can result in unsustainable land use change being displaced and adding pressure to social-ecological systems in distant regions Lambin and Meyfroidt For example, Griggs et al.
Explicitly linking interconnections, trade-offs, and synergies between goals and targets will have many benefits of reducing the costs of action as well as avoiding unintended social-ecological consequences. Emerging approaches that support the assessment of indirect impacts and systemic interconnections in the Anthropocene can facilitate this Walker et al. For example, biophysical accounting and economic simulation models e. Climate adaptation frameworks are now beginning to look at tools from the private sector, such as supply chain risk assessments, to incorporate indirect impacts and climate risks that originate outside national borders and that are transmitted by biophysical, trade, financial, and human migration pathways Benzie et al.
Finally, the agendas of new international and interdisciplinary science initiatives such as FuturICT and Future Earth are explicitly focusing on refining existing, and developing new, tools to further our knowledge about global interactions and interdependencies between social, technological, and environmental systems; importantly, these communities are ready to participate in the codesign of the SDGs and related measures Reid et al.
The SDGs need also to move beyond the traditional approach to development that assumes stability and linear changes in social, ecological, and economic systems. Social-ecological systems often exhibit unpredictable and nonlinear behavior as a result of key processes or subsystems crossing over critical thresholds.
For example, there is now substantial experimental, modeling, and empirical evidence showing unexpected and nonlinear changes in ecosystems Scheffer et al. To deal with complex, often surprising, social-ecological behavior, SDGs need to be measurable and embedded in an adaptive governance context Folke et al. Measuring and monitoring progress on the SDGs will require agreed upon sets of multidimensional indicators that make sense at national, regional, and international levels.
While the difficulties of creating measurable, multidimensional policy targets have been highlighted in the past Parris and Kates a , Attaran , recent social-ecological systems-based approaches for measuring multiple ecosystem services and human wellbeing provide hopeful avenues for developing integrated and scalable indicators for global international agreements, such as the SDGs. For example, Reyers et al. This complex target is distilled into its component parts e.
Complementary strategies, such as investments in globally harmonized real-time data collecting and reporting systems Pereira et al. However, just like the MDGs, the SDGs will be a set of moral and political commitments, as opposed to legally binding ones.
While countries may agree on a set of ambitious, universal goals, they cannot be forced to comply with them. Successful SDGs will require generating collective action around them and minimizing free riding. Experimental and field studies provide encouraging results from, mostly small-scale, communities that were able to establish and maintain high levels of cooperation through mutual agreements, even without external sanction and enforcement institutions Ostrom , Ostrom et al.
However, the success of such voluntary agreements depends on whether goals are credible and transparent, and whether noncompliance imposes sufficiently high social costs on most members. It is unclear whether such cooperation can materialize and ensure compliance around the SDGs, which are global collective action problems.
There are indications that self-organizing and polycentric approaches can emerge as ways to deal with other transnational and regional collective action problems such as climate governance Ostrom , public health Lieberman , ocean acidification Galaz et al.
Polycentric approaches refer to multiactor and multilevel responses that are characterized by a self-organizing relationship between many centers of decision-making that are formally independent of each other.
These governance configurations seem to facilitate experimentation, cooperation, and learning at multiple levels Ostrom , which are prerequisites for dealing with problems that cut across administrative domains Galaz et al.
Ostrom argues that the various innovative interventions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions occurring at local, national, and regional levels e. The seeds of polycentric arrangements that could emerge around the SDGs could be found in the existing efforts to implement sustainable development at multiple scales in businesses, communities, and nations. While polycentric order holds promise, we still know very little about the features and conditions that trigger and maintain these governance arrangements and whether they can be fully designed from scratch or must evolve organically Galaz et al.
Moreover, polycentric approaches will not suffice in isolation; they will always be dependent on anchoring with more formal negotiation processes Galaz et al. Therefore, it is indispensable to stimulate collective action around the SDGs by negotiating strategic agreements Barrett , meaning that the SDG targets do not aim at what we should do but rather at what we can do.
In other words, the trade-offs between ambition and feasibility will need to be navigated. A good example is the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships known as MARPOL , a technology standard for oil tankers that helped overcome the free riding problem and has significantly improved over time Barrett Combining an appreciation of the polycentric nature of governance with an acknowledgement of the trade-off between ambition and feasibility means that SDGs need to be scalable.
This will not be achieved if the bar is set either too high or too low. Consequently, there has been growing interest in understanding and stimulating sustainability transitions or transformations in the Anthropocene so that social-ecological systems are set on new trajectories that ensure that both human wellbeing and a range of ecosystem services are sustained over time Parris and Kates b , Chapin et al.
Such transformations may require radical, systemic shifts in deeply held values and beliefs, patterns of social behavior, and multilevel governance and management regimes. The SDGs can play a critical role in accelerating and measuring progress toward such sustainable development trajectories.
However, goal-setting per se does not ensure that change will happen, regardless of the motivational power of the goals set. SDGs could catalyze and maintain transformational change, opening a window of opportunity for creating appropriate norms, institutions, and incentive structures for social innovations.
This requires the SDG implementation framework to be guided by existing knowledge about the characteristics, dynamics, and limitations of social change processes at all scales, from the individual to the global. We can address only a small subset of these issues; our arguments are limited to the role of shared belief systems and their differences across communities and societies, the importance of understanding and leveraging institutions and institutional change, and finally, the need to accelerate social innovation through the creation of experimental settings associated with institutionalized opportunities for scaling up success stories.
Substantial headway has been made in understanding how shared belief systems in social groups such as communities, states, or markets emerge. Collective belief systems provide the foundation for national identities or interests, and can shape or change norms and guide decisions Finnemore and Sikkink , Pinker They can, for example, determine why a government selects one policy option rather than another, or how different stakeholders in a national park respond to alternative management goals.
The sharp divide between liberals and conservatives in the United States regarding the appropriate political response to climate change illustrates the importance of shared belief and value systems for addressing sustainable development challenges.
A recent study by Gromet et al. The authors found that connecting energy efficient products to environmental concerns can negatively affect the demand for these products in the United States, specifically among persons who are more politically conservative. Other studies provide evidence that citizen support for renewable energy can be garnered through linking relevant policy measures to job creation Espinoza and Vredenburg In this way, community-specific circumstances serve as a starting point for change.
National targets could be formulated in ways that resonate with key belief systems and avoid counterproductive consequences due to ideological polarization. For example, in some instances, it could require targets that place a higher emphasis on themes like energy independence, air quality, and economic opportunity, and less emphasis on environmental, ecological, or climate change-related frames.
A key challenge for science is to begin disentangling how these cognitive issues play out at different social scales local, regional, and national in different countries—since the relevant value and belief systems will be different. Building and acting on this knowledge will require the establishment of multilevel support and advisory systems that can help identify the nation-specific communication and framing challenges when developing the respective SDG implementation strategies jointly with national governments and civil society institutions.
Institutions, the formal rules and informal norms that shape human behavior, provide the broader foundations for collective social change Finnemore and Sikkink However, institutions are often prone to inertia and difficult to transform Rothstein , which suggests that SDGs that propose significant institutional change may meet with resistance or noncompliance. The formulation and pursuit of SDGs has to take such inertia into consideration and assess trade-offs between staggered institutional reform and creation from scratch.
This suggests that any SDG proposals that require significant institutional change should also include incentives to overcome such inertia and modify the cost-benefit calculus. Ostrom et al. At the international level, a historic example involves the North Pacific Fur Seal, in which a regime of collaboration emerged that eliminated pelagic harvests in exchange for a managed and coordinated shared harvest Young The fractionalized harvest and agreed upon elimination of pelagic hunting changed the calculus of the trade in fur seals, and resulted in a sustained rebound in populations for more than 70 years.
Setting targets as particular, more modest changes that provide good incentives for subsequent shifts in governance e. The building of formal CO 2 accounting and reporting practices into international climate agreements is a good example of this type of approach Lovell and MacKenzie , since formal reporting requirements can provide simple incentives that can lead to subsequent changes in behavior.
Transformational change can be accelerated and triggered through social innovations, in the form of new sets of rules and norms, new ways of thinking, and new processes for action and decision-making van der Leeuw , Westley and Antadze While the SDGs cannot demand or predict such social innovations, they can create social innovation spaces and be designed to integrate the results from these innovation spaces with processes of adaptive goal setting and goal pursuit.
In the literature on socio-technical transitions Grin et al. Recent studies from regional to international scales, and across different types of institutions, give evidence that such innovation spaces can play a key role in facilitating transformative change Loorbach and Rotmans Such spaces need to have clear boundaries and purposes in order to catalyze ideas in a certain direction, while leaving room for experimentation, local adaptation, and failure.
Such networks will integrate different perspectives and knowledge sets, and facilitate breakthroughs in complex problem domains toward more sustainable policy and management options Westley et al. However, the Anthropocene poses particular challenges for how a strong and legitimate successor to the MDGs needs to be designed and formulated. Critically, a set of SDGs that ignores a social-ecological perspective, critical trade-offs between feasibility and ambition, and agents of social change would lead to contradictory and ill-defined objectives.
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Investigations in radioecology include field sampling, experimental field and laboratory procedures, and the development of environmentally predictive simulation models in an attempt to understand the migration methods of radioactive material throughout the environment. The practice consists of techniques from the general sciences of physics , chemistry , mathematics , biology , and ecology , coupled with applications in radiation protection. Radioecological studies provide the necessary data for dose estimation and risk assessment regarding radioactive pollution and its effects on human and environmental health. Radioecologists detect and evaluate the effects of ionizing radiation and radionuclides on ecosystems, and then assess their risks and dangers. Interest and studies in the area of radioecology significantly increased in order to ascertain and manage the risks involved as a result of the Chernobyl disaster.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Ecological Effects of Nuclear Radiation Particular kinds of environmental perturbation are essentially replicated in many places. Because no two sites are identical, detailed prediction of effects requires knowledge of the ecosystem in question.
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Whicker and V. Whicker , V. Radioecology is the field of study in which elements of physical and biological sciences are combined to pursue knowledge of radioactivity in the environment, including movement of radioactive materials and the effects of ionizing radiation on populations and on ecological organization.
Freshwater and Estuarine Radioecology, Volume 68
Я ищу одного человека. - Знать ничего не знаю. - Не знаю, о ком вы говорите, - поправил его Беккер, подзывая проходившую мимо официантку.
Все сгрудились вокруг нее и прочитали текст: …распространено заблуждение, будто на Нагасаки была сброшена плутониевая бомба. На самом деле в ней использовался уран, как и в ее сестрице, сброшенной на Хиросиму.
Radioecology: nuclear energy and the environment
Время. - Три часа. Стратмор поднял брови. - Целых три часа. Так долго. Сьюзан нахмурилась, почувствовав себя слегка оскорбленной.
Это так важно? - полувопросительно произнес Джабба. - Очень важно, - сказал Смит. - Если бы Танкадо подозревал некий подвох, он инстинктивно стал бы искать глазами убийцу. Как вы можете убедиться, этого не произошло.
Table of Contents
Оказавшись в условиях подлинного разведывательного затемнения, АНБ выпустило секретную директиву, одобренную президентом Соединенных Штатов. Заручившись поддержкой федеральных фондов и получив карт-бланш на все необходимые меры для решения проблемы, АНБ приступило к созданию невозможного - первой универсальной машины для вскрытия шифров. Вопреки широко распространенному мнению о том, что такой компьютер создать невозможно, АНБ осталось верным своему девизу: возможно все; на невозможное просто требуется больше времени. Через пять лет, истратив полмиллиона рабочих часов и почти два миллиарда долларов, АН Б вновь доказало жизненность своего девиза. Последний из трех миллионов процессоров размером с почтовую марку занял свое место, все программное обеспечение было установлено, и керамическая оболочка наглухо заделана. ТРАНСТЕКСТ появился на свет. Хотя создававшийся в обстановке повышенной секретности ТРАНСТЕКСТ стал плодом усилий многих умов и принцип его работы не был доступен ни одному человеку в отдельности, он, в сущности, был довольно прост: множество рук делают груз легким.
Повисла тишина. Фонтейн, видимо, размышлял. Сьюзан попробовала что-то сказать, но Джабба ее перебил: - Чего вы ждете, директор. Позвоните Танкадо.
- Она подняла телефонную трубку и начала набирать номер. Бринкерхофф сидел как на иголках. - Ты уверена, что мы должны его беспокоить. - Я не собираюсь его беспокоить, - сказала Мидж, протягивая ему трубку. - Это сделаешь .
Джабба окончательно убедился: директор рискнул и проиграл. Шеф службы обеспечения систем безопасности спустился с подиума подобно грозовой туче, сползающей с горы, и окинул взглядом свою бригаду программистов, отдающих какие-то распоряжения. - Начинаем отключение резервного питания. Приготовиться. Приступайте.
В Третий узел заглянул Стратмор. - Какие-нибудь новости, Сьюзан? - спросил Стратмор и тут же замолчал, увидав Грега Хейла. - Добрый вечер, мистер Хейл.