Silness And Loe Plaque Index Pdf

silness and loe plaque index pdf

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Show all documents Comparison between rapid and slow palatal expansion: evaluation of selected periodontal indices Methods: 10 patients aged 6 to 7 years; average age 6. They were treated with the Haas expander.

The Gingival Index, the Plaque Index and the Retention Index Systems

Gingivitis prevalence in Latin American population is not well documented, therefore the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and severity of plaque-induced gingivitis in adult populations of three Latin American cities. Subjects completed a questionnaire about their medical history and oral hygiene. Clinical assessment included recording of missing teeth, visible plaque index, calculus recording and gingival index GI, Loe-Silness index.

Results: Average GI was 1. No statistical difference was found between GAM 1. Total plaque index was 0. Dental calculus was present in at least one of the 18 evaluated sites per subject with no statistical difference between cities.

There was no statistical difference in GI between smokers, former smokers and non- smokers. Conclusion: Gingivitis prevalence was Moderate Gingivitis was the predominant form, with no statistically significant difference between cities or gender. Dental plaque accumulation was the most important risk factor associated with the establishment of the disease.

Resultados: El GI promedio fue de 1. Gingivitis associated with plaque accumulation is the most common form of the periodontal diseases. It is defined as inflammation of the gingiva in the absence of clinical attachment loss and occurs in the presence of dental plaque 1.

Gingivitis presents with specific clinical features such as erythema, edema, change in contour and consistency of the gingival tissue and bleeding upon probing with no radiographic evidence of crestal bone loss 1. Gingivitis can present in early childhood 4. Hugoson et al. Zhang et al. Plaque induced gingivitis is reversible with appropriate treatment; however, when not treated it becomes a risk factor for periodontitis 3 , 8.

Latin America is a heterogeneous region in which epidemiological information regarding gingivitis is scarce 9. The great need to obtain information on this subject underlies the purpose of this investigation which was to estimate the prevalence and severity of plaque induced gingivitis in three Latin American cities. Data were collected from June to December Subjects were selected based on population registries of each city, according to their last census, and accounting for differences in gender and age.

Exclusion criteria: 1 antibiotics intake at the time of clinical examination or the preceding three months; 2 pregnancy; 3 breast-feeding; 4 coagulation problems; 5 medications that could interfere with the results of the study; 6 fixed orthodontic appliances 7 antibiotic prophylaxis prior to dental examination.

Selected subjects signed informed consent forms. Examinations were performed by one calibrated examiner per city. Reproducibility analysis revealed inter-examiner kappa values greater than 0. Questionnaires about medical history and oral hygiene habits were completed. Visible plaque was scored at six sites per tooth mesiobuccal, midbuccal, distobuccal, mesiolingual, midlingual and distolingual : absence of plaque 0 , presence of plaque 1.

Calculus was registered on the lower anterior teeth on three surfaces per tooth mesiolingual, midlingual and distolingual : absence of calculus 0 , presence of calculus 1. Loe-Silness modified index 11 was used to assess gingival health on six sites per tooth distobuccal, mesiobuccal, midbuccal, distolingual, mesiolingual and midlingual :.

Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS22 software. It was conducted via frequency distribution and crossing of variables. Variance analysis was used in means comparison assuming normality and homogeneity of variances; otherwise the Kruskall-Wallis test was used. Analysis of correlation was made through the Pearson coefficient. Average age was Total sample: males The overall average gingival index GI was 1. The highest values for GI were associated with molar teeth 1. Only 3. Moderate gingivitis predominated in the three cities Table1.

In BC, Of the remaining No statistically significant difference was found for age range in any city. In BC the percentage remained constant irrespective of age. From the total sample, On the other hand, there was no statistically significant difference according to gender. Maximum plaque deposition was observed in molars and lower central incisors. Minimum plaque accumulations were associated with upper anterior teeth.

Interproximal sites showed the highest calculus index. In terms of tooth type, canines had the lowest amount of calculus while central incisors had the highest. Only 6. No positive correlation was found between presence of plaque and flossing. Of the total subjects, Between non-smokers and former smokers there was no significant difference. Plaque-induced gingivitis is reported as a very common disease amongst the general population. Loe et al. However, there is a dearth of available information reporting prevalence data for gingivitis in specific populations.

A previous study following the same protocol in three South American cities, reported a very similar prevalence Both studies confirm that gingivitis is a highly prevalent disease in Latin America. Previous epidemiological studies in China and the USA reported a prevalence of gingivitis of Moderate gingivitis predominated in the three cities. There was, however, a statistically significant difference in terms of good gingival health between CDMX and the other two cities.

This is in accordance with the directly proportional relationship between presence of bacterial plaque and gingival inflammation reported in the literature 1 , 6 , 7 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , Analyzing the correlation by city, data reported in BC and GAM coincides with data reported for the total sample. However, CDMX had the lowest GI scores without statistically significant difference in plaque index compared with the other two cities.

No significant associations were found between GI and age group supporting the findings of Winkel et al. In the same manner, Nonnenmacher et al. A higher prevalence of gingivitis has been reported in men compared with women 6, 7, A study of the urban population of Sweden showed that women had better oral hygiene as well as periodontal status than men However, in this study, no gender-related differences in gingival health were seen which agrees with the findings of a previous study in South America 10 , highlighting the need to understand gingival health at the level of specific populations.

It has also been established that removal of plaque from sites with gingivitis results in resolution of soft tissue inflammation 13, Previous studies have reported that the majority of subjects brushed twice per day and only a small percentage brush three times or more per day Lowest gingivitis prevalence has been reported among subjects with regular tooth brushing habits Zimmermann et al.

Taking into account the high plaque index amongst subjects, results clear that effectiveness of their tooth brushing and oral hygiene habits were far from ideal. This is in accordance with data published by Theilade 19 and could be explained by the fact that only 6. Highest plaque scores were associated with molars, perhaps due to difficulties in tooth brushing and accessing posterior sites, especially on teeth with furcation exposure. In contrast, anterior maxillary teeth had the lowest plaque accumulation, presumably due to better and easier access during tooth brushing.

It has been reported the negative impact of smoking on periodontal health 25 ; however, no statistically significant difference was found in GI between smokers, former smokers and non-smokers. Smokers showed a slightly higher but not statistically significant plaque index than non-smokers. Aligned with this findings, numerous investigations have reported similar plaque accumulation regardless of smoking habits 26 , 27 , In contrast, some studies have reported greater plaque accumulation in smokers compared with non-smokers.

There is also controversy in terms of bleeding on probing. This study found no statistically significant difference on bleeding on probing between smokers and non-smokers. Van der Velden et al. They also reported that in the presence of plaque, smokers tend to bleed less than non-smokers.

According to Calsina et al. Absence of bleeding on probing has been regarded as a sign of gingival and periodontal stability Smoking could therefore mask gingival inflammation leading to a false negative diagnosis, as previously suggested by Bergstrom However, no statistically significant differences in GI were found in this study according to educational level. Gingivitis prevalence was The study data underlines the importance of understanding oral health at the geographical population level and provides valuable information on gingival status in Latin America that could help develop programs to benefit oral care in these populations.

This study was carried out thanks to the financial support given by Colgate Palmolive. The authors declare there is no conflict of interest related to the content of the present investigation. Parameter on plaque-induced gingivitis. American Academy of Periodontology. Heitz-Mayfield L.

Clinical course of chronic periodontitis II.

Oral Health Country/Area Profile Project

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a 'simplified oral hygiene index' in which the vestibular or lingual aspects of only 6 selected teeth were examin ed. The 'plaque index' (Silness and Loe, ;.

Clinical index systems used to assess the efficacy of mouth-rinses on plaque and gingivitis

Gingivitis prevalence in Latin American population is not well documented, therefore the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and severity of plaque-induced gingivitis in adult populations of three Latin American cities. Subjects completed a questionnaire about their medical history and oral hygiene. Clinical assessment included recording of missing teeth, visible plaque index, calculus recording and gingival index GI, Loe-Silness index.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the modified plaque score MPS for assessing the oral hygiene status of periodontitis patients. A total of patients were included in this study. The MPS and clinical parameters were re-evaluated after scaling and a series of root planing. The mean time for PCR measurement was 2. These findings suggest that repetitive plaque control combined with an easily applicable plaque index MPS may facilitate more effective oral hygiene education and improved periodontal health.

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The effect of depressive symptomatology on periodontitis is not clear in its path of action. To test a model to predict clinical attachment loss by direct effect of the dental plaque accumulation, which is a direct effect of worse oral hygiene habits and an indirect effect of greater depressive symptomatology. Three incidental samples were collected: 35 dental patients with periodontitis, 26 mental health patients with depressive symptomatology, and 29 people from the general population. Plaque index and clinical attachment loss were assessed. Path analysis was used to test the model.

gingival index

It is thus used to get an estimation illustrating how much the dentition until the day of examination has become affected by dental caries. It is either calculated for 28 permanent teeth, excluding 18, 28, 38 and 48 the "wisdom" teeth or for 32 teeth The Third edition of "Oral Health Surveys - Basic methods", Geneva , recommends 32 teeth. The sum of the three figures forms the DMFT-value.


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WHO Oral Health Surveys, 5th ed, (PDF) The measurement of the state of oral hygiene by Silness-Löe plaque index is based on recording both soft.