File Name: introduction of environment health and safety national .zip
Special acknowledgement is given for the technical assistance provided by Eco-Healthy Child Care, a program of the Children's Environmental Health Network. Caring for Our Children: Environmental Health in Early Care and Education EH is a collection of nationally recognized health and safety standards that have the greatest impact on environmental health in early care and education settings.
- Environmental and Occupational Health
- Environmental Health and Safety
- Environment, health and safety
The mission of EHS is to work with our customers to provide a workplace free of recognized hazards in support of the UTMB mission to improve health for the people of Texas and around the world. Materials Management Warehouse bldg. Room 2.
Environmental and Occupational Health
There are a range of environmental health hazards that affect our wellbeing. Hazards can be grouped together to improve understanding and action planning. The actions that you need to carry out to protect the health of your community depend on knowing how these hazards can affect us all.
In this study session, you will learn about the types and categories of environmental health hazards, the routes of exposure and the ways of preventing and controlling these hazards. In Study Session 1, you learned that environmental health addresses the assessment and control of environmental factors that can potentially affect health. It is targeted towards preventing disease, creating health-supporting environments and encouraging positive human behaviours.
You have also learned about the general issues of environmental health risks. Our environment generally consists of physical, chemical and biological factors and our relationship with our environment is always interactive. This means that we affect our environment and our environment affects us. These interactions may expose us to environmental health hazards ; that is any environmental factors or situations that can cause injury, disease or death.
It is worth pausing here to clarify the difference between hazard and risk. A hazard is something which is known to cause harm, that is, a source of danger to health.
Risk is the likelihood or probability of the hazard occurring and the magnitude of the resulting effects. For example, if you climb a ladder you know there is a chance you could fall off and be injured, although it is unlikely.
The ladder is the hazard and the chance of injury is the risk you take by climbing the ladder. We will illustrate an environmental health hazard with an example. The production of cow dung cake to be used for fuel is a common practice in Ethiopia.
Fresh dung supports the breeding of flies. Dung cake is usually prepared near to the house Figure 2. Young flies need food and move from the dung to the food that is found in the house. The flies pick up pathogenic organisms from the dung and transfer them to fresh food that is ready for consumption. A child eats the contaminated food and gets diarrhoea in a few days. The conditions or the situation of producing dung cake close to the house is hazardous or dangerous because it facilitates the breeding of flies near to fresh food in the house.
In this example, the hazard arises because of the infectious agent the pathogenic organisms and the process or condition the preparation of cow dung cake close to the house. The risk of getting an infection is very high if someone consumes food that is contaminated with an infectious agent. What causes environmental hazards? List some different types of natural and human-produced hazards.
You may have listed a number of factors. Natural hazards include earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and flooding. Human-produced hazards are mainly related to pollution of the air, water and soil, and contamination of food. Physical hazards are those substances or conditions that threaten our physical safety. Fires, explosive materials, temperature hot or cold , noise, radiation, spills on floors and unguarded machines are some examples of physical hazards.
Physical hazards also include ergonomic hazards which occur when the type of work, body position and working conditions put strain on your body. This happens when your capacity for work is restricted by the type of work.
Short-term exposure in badly designed work may result in muscle fatigue or tiredness, but long-term exposure can result in serious long-term injuries of the musculo-skeletal system. Injera baking is one of the hardest tasks a woman faces routinely. She spends one to two hours in a forced sitting and bending position which can be damaging to her body.
Ergonomic hazards also exist among farmers, for example while manually ploughing and cleaning the weeds in farmland Figure 2. Biological hazards are organisms, or by-products from an organism, that are harmful or potentially harmful to human beings. They include pathogenic bacteria, viruses and parasites, and also toxins poisons that are produced by organisms.
Biological hazards are the cause of the majority of human diseases. For example, bacteria cause cholera, tuberculosis, leprosy, relapsing fever and many diarrhoeal diseases; viruses are responsible for hepatitis B and C, HIV, measles and polio; and there are many diseases caused by parasites.
A parasite is any organism that lives on or in another organism, called the host, and causes damage, ill health or even death to the host. Some human parasites are external and live on the skin and hair, for example, mites that cause scabies.
Internal parasites, living inside the body, include protozoa and helminths. Protozoan parasites are single-celled organisms that enter the body either by ingestion or via the bite of an infected insect. Malaria, sleeping sickness and leishmaniasis are examples of diseases caused by protozoan parasites introduced by insect bites; amoebic dysentery and giardiasis result from drinking or eating contaminated water or food.
Helminths are parasitic worms that live inside the body. Several helminths have complicated life cycles involving humans and other animals as secondary hosts. They have different routes of entry into the human body depending on the type of worm including ingestion with food or water, the faeco-oral route, insect bites and penetration through the skin.
There are three main groups: tapeworms, roundworms and flukes. Tapeworms may be ingested with food, especially under-cooked meat, or with water or soil contaminated with faeces. Roundworms , also called nematodes, are responsible for many different diseases including ascariasis, dracunculiasis guinea worm , filariasis, hookworm, onchocerciasis river blindness , trichinosis and trichuriasis whipworm.
A type of fluke is the cause of schistosomiasis, also known as bilharzia. People become infected with schistosomiasis, not through food, but by standing or swimming in water that contains the immature form of the fluke; these are released into the water from the snail secondary host. The fluke gets into the water and the snail from the excreta of infected people. Biological hazards arise from working with infected people or animals, or handling infectious waste and body fluids, as well as contact with unsafe water, food and waste.
The hazards may occur in the home, at school or at work. In particular, work in hospitals, hotel and hospital laundries, laboratories, veterinary offices and nursing homes may expose someone to biological hazards. Chemical hazards are present when a person is exposed to a harmful chemical at home or at work. The chemicals can be in the form of gases, solids or liquids.
Exposure to chemicals could cause acute health effects an immediate or rapid onset if taken in large quantities in a single dose; and chronic health effect s long-term effects on health if taken in small doses over an extended time.
Detergents powdered soap, bleaching powder , drugs veterinary and human and pesticides DDT, malathion, diazinon, zinc phosphide, warfarin are chemical hazards that are commonly found in rural households Figure 2. Farmers, young children under 5 years and household animals are vulnerable to chemical exposure, but it is always possible that anyone might come into contact with the chemical during preparation, spraying, use or storage.
A person is exposed to chemicals through various ways: through inhaling the vapours, gases or dusts; through skin contact with solvents, acids and alkalis; and through ingestion of unknown chemicals with food and water.
Incomplete burning of fuel releases carbon monoxide CO which is a chemical hazard. When breathed in, CO binds to the haemoglobin in our blood, reducing the uptake of oxygen; the cells of the body then suffer because they are not getting enough oxygen.
This can result in severe sickness and even death. Culture is the knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, customs and habits that are acquired by people as members of society. It is also the common ways of life and set of thoughts and feelings shared by the members of a society. Just as there are cultural practices that are good for health, such as breastfeeding a child, there are also cultural practices that adversely affect health and these can be considered to be cultural hazards.
There are practices that are widely accepted and found in different areas of Ethiopia that can be hazards for health; for example, the belief that evil spirits are the source of diseases, practices of storing drinking water uncovered, open defecation and not handwashing before meals and after latrine use.
Hygiene and health promotion and community mobilisation are critical interventions that help improve practices that are not useful to the community.
To change human behaviour away from undesired practices, you need to change knowledge and attitudes. Let us assume you have observed that one of the households in your area has a clean latrine but it has not been used for the last few months. What could be the explanation for not using the latrine? Poverty and illiteracy are examples of social hazards. We know that poor and uneducated people get sick more frequently, compared to wealthier and more educated people.
Alcoholism, obesity, smoking and drug abuse are also social hazards that affect our health. A person with such habits is, over time, degraded, not respected by society, physically and mentally dissatisfied, and ultimately is likely to suffer with chronic illnesses such as lung and cardio-vascular diseases.
To reduce the adverse impacts of environmental hazards on human health you need to understand where the hazard comes from, identify it and the pathway it can take to affect people. The source of the hazard is the place of origin from proposed and existing activities. Patients and carriers discharge infectious agents biological hazards that could infect healthy people. Industrial processes in a factory release chemical hazards that may be found in sewage; the sewage could reach drinking water, thereby creating the possibility of ingesting these chemicals.
Household activities could also be sources of hazards, for example, cooking with fuels such as animal dung and charcoal produces toxic smoke that can cause lung diseases. The type of hazard is the particular chemical, infectious agent or other agent involved. The pathway is the route by which the hazard gets from the source to the person. The response or the effect is the health outcome changes in body function or health after the hazard has affected the person.
The amount and type of change or response depends on the type of hazard and the effect it can have on different people. If you want to prevent a hazard, you need to understand the source of the hazard where it comes from , the type of hazard for example the type and concentration of a chemical , the pathway the affected environment and how the exposure could take place , and the response the effect the hazard could have on people.
We will demonstrate this with an example. Sewage containing cadmium a toxic chemical is produced by a hide-processing factory and flows into a river. People downstream of the point of discharge drink the contaminated water and become sick. The hazard exposure is described as follows:. You may be asked to plan how to manage environmental hazards, say in a Health Post or mill house that exists in your locality. Involvement in hazard management requires you to follow certain steps, which are outlined below.
We have seen that hazards are things that endanger human health or life, but hazards can also be harmful to our environment. Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment causing harm, instability or disorder to the ecosystem. An ecosystem includes all the living organisms plants, animals, microorganisms and their physical environment and the interactions between them.
Environmental Health and Safety
Your working environment is affected by factors including health and safety, security and working hours. A poor working environment can damage your health and put your safety at risk. The Workplace Health, Safety and Welfare Regulations — which became law in — lay down minimum standards for workplaces and work in or near buildings. These regulations apply to most types of workplace except transport, construction sites and domestic premises. Workplaces must be suitable for all who work in them, including workers with any kind of disability. You have the right to a safe and healthy workplace which is suitable for all who work in or visit them. This means that your employer must look at issues such as space, cleanliness, lighting and ventilation and adequate toilet, washing and changing facilities.
Jump to navigation. COVID research continuity resources. This manual provides information about policies, procedures, and guidelines related to health and safety at Stanford. Adherence to good health and safety practices and compliance with applicable health and safety regulations are a responsibility of all faculty, staff, and students. Line responsibility for good health and safety practice begins with the supervisor in the workplace, laboratory or classroom and proceeds upward through the levels of management.
the common format used in all the Manuals. 1 Health, Safety and Environment. A Series of Trade Union Education. Manuals for Agricultural Workers. Introduction.
Environment, health and safety
Exhibit Description Exhibit B "Resource and Materials Lists". Over the next several decades, this responsibility for community surveys inspections shifted from the physicians toward the sanitary engineering staff. These surveys came to include a wide range of facilities from water systems to community buildings to dairy plants.
Part 3 - Professional Services
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