Spatial And Attribute Data In Gis Pdf

spatial and attribute data in gis pdf

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A geographic information system GIS is a conceptualized framework that provides the ability to capture and analyze spatial and geographic data. GIS applications or GIS apps are computer-based tools that allow the user to create interactive queries user-created searches , store and edit spatial and non-spatial data, analyze spatial information output, and visually share the results of these operations by presenting them as maps.

There are two components to GIS data: spatial information coordinate and projection information for spatial features and attribute data. Attribute data is information appended in tabular format to spatial features. The spatial data is the where and attribute data can contain information about the what, where, and why.

Geographical Information Systems in Hydrology pp Cite as. The use of GIS technology in engineering, in general, and in hydrology, in particular, has become feasible due primarily to the possibility of handling and integrating enormous amounts of geographic data efficiently. As shown in Figure 4.

GIS Data: Spatial vs Attributes

There are two components to GIS data: spatial information coordinate and projection information for spatial features and attribute data. Attribute data is information appended in tabular format to spatial features. The spatial data is the where and attribute data can contain information about the what, where, and why. Attribute data provides characteristics about spatial data.

Attribute data can be store as one of five different field types in a table or database: character, integer, floating, date, and BLOB. The character property or string is for text based values such as the name of a street or descriptive values such as the condition of a street. Character attribute data is stored as a series of alphanumeric symbols. Aside from descriptors, character fields can contain other attribute values such as categories and ranks. For example, a character field may contain the categories for a street: avenue, boulevard, lane, or highway.

A character field could also contain the rank, which is a relative ordering of features. Character data can be sorted in ascending A to Z and descending Z to A order. Since numbers are considered text in this field, those numbers will be sorted alphabetically which means that a number sequence of 1, 2, 9, 11, 13, 22 would be sorted in ascending order as 1, 11, 13, 2, 22, 9. Because character data is not numeric, calculations sum, average, median, etc.

Character fields can be summarized to produced counts e. Integer and floating are numerical values see: the difference between floating and integer values.

Within the integer type, the is a further division between short and long integer values. As would be expected, short integers store numeric values without fractional values for a shorter range than long integers. Floating point attribute values store numeric values with fractional values.

Therefore, floating point values are for numeric values with decimal points i. Numeric values will be sorted in sequentially either in ascending 1 to 10 or descending 10 to 1 order. Numerical value fields can have operations performed such as calculating the sum or average value.

Numerical field values can be a count e. BLOB stands for binary large object and this attribute type is used for storing information such images, multimedia, or bits of code in a field. This field stores object linking and embedding OLE which are objects created in other applications such as images and multimedia and linked from the BLOB field.

Spatial Data Characteristics

Hence, this data is a combination of location data and a value data to render a map, for example. Attribute data can be classified into 4 levels of measurement: nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio. The nominal level is the lowest level of measurement for distinguishing features quantitatively using type or class e. Ordinal data are ranked into hierarchies but does not show any magnitude of difference e. The interval measurement indicates the distance between the ranks of measured elements, but a starting point is arbitrarily assigned e. Celsius Temperature.

Geographic: it has a spatial component (location). – Information: it tells us something about that place (attribute). • This is one of they aspects of geographic data.

Attribute Data Types for GIS

ArcGIS Blog. Most data and measurements can be associated with locations and, therefore, can be placed on the map. Using spatial data, you know both what is present and where it is. The natural environment elevation, temperature, precipitation is often represented using raster grids, whereas the built environment roads, buildings and administrative data countries, census areas tends to be represented as vector data. In GIS each dataset is managed as a layer and can be graphically combined using analytical operators called overlay analysis.

Geographic Information System GIS is a computer-based tool or a technology to manage, analyze and display geographically referenced information. GIS provides multiple facilities such as data capturing, data management, analysis, presentation, etc. It allows the users to visualize and understand the relationships between Geo data in forms of maps, reports, charts etc.

If every line on a map was the same colour, width, thickness, and had the same label, it would be very hard to make out what was going on. The map would also give us very little information.

GIS Data: Spatial vs Attributes

No matter what your interests are or what field you work in, spatial data is always being considered whether you know it or not. Spatial data can exist in a variety of formats and contains more than just location specific information. To properly understand and learn more about spatial data, there are a few key terms that will help you become more fluent in the language of spatial data. Vector data is best described as graphical representations of the real world.

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Attribute Data Types for GIS

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