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- Agroforestry for Adaptation and Mitigation to Climate Change
The potential of forests and trees to mitigate global warming has long been the main focus of climate change discussions.
Agroforestry — a water wise land management system that can serve as a response option for both climate change adaptation and mitigation, while addressing many of the challenges that smallholder farmers are facing. Agroforestry can generate multiple livelihood and environmental benefits, as it can help to mitigate climate change and help farmers to adapt to extreme and variable weather. Agroforestry supports ecosystem services, such as regulation of water and sediment flows, carbon and nutrient cycling in soils — leading to for example increased soil fertility, reduced soil erosion and flood and pest control.
Role of agroforestry in climate change mitigation
It is globally accepted that climate change is presently the greatest threat to the sustainability of human livelihood and biodiversity. Most farmers in the study area are highly aware of climate change and its consequences on the farming system; however, mitigation strategies are clearly lacking. Among the mitigation, mechanism to reduce the threat is achieved by increasing the amount of carbon sinks and reducing greenhouse gas emission through the adoption of agroforestry practices.
The purpose of this study is to determine if awareness on climate change leads to the adoption of agroforestry practices, and to examine the determinants. A total number of questionnaires were administered to the farmers in the district using stratified random sampling technique. Descriptive statistics and Heckprobit sample selection model were used to determine the objectives of the study.
Regular number of extensions visit, information and training on agroforestry should be provided to the farmers in the study area. The causal effect or relationship of climate change awareness on mitigation through the practice of agroforestry in South Africa, especially in the study area, has not been measured. This research set a pace in the area of climate change awareness leading to mitigation strategies through the use of agroforestry practices as an option to be used in the rural farming area of South Africa.
Oduniyi, O. Published by Emerald Publishing Limited. Anyone may reproduce, distribute, translate and create derivative works of this article for both commercial and non-commercial purposes , subject to full attribution to the original publication and authors. It cannot be gainsaid that agricultural production is exposed to climate change, for farmers have divulged that it poses a very big challenge to them. Equally, the threatening impact of climate change on livelihood, food production, health status, and other aspects of rural livelihood has been confirmed by various researches.
Likewise, different researchers, but from related field submit that the threat is caused by natural phenomenon and human activities which have consequently given rise to greenhouse gases. Ironically, just as agricultural production contributes to climate change, yet it is also affected by it. In Sub-Saharan countries, South Africa inclusive, the impact of climate change, as reported by Oduniyi , has reflected on financial capital, and which is attributed to low profit and low cooperative finance.
According to Grain South Africa GSA, , maize industry is one of the largest supply of food production that yields about 25 to 33 per cent of the country total gross agricultural production, and this form the staple food for the majority.
However, there is currently a significant reduction in the production of maize as a result of climate change impact. Correspondingly, Vogel et al. Consequently, to address this increase in temperature, the adoption of agroforestry is one of the effective measures that can be used to mitigate climate change. Even though climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies provide a broad mechanism that enables the farmer to survive the detrimental effects of climate change, yet this paper focuses on how to mitigate the negative impact of climate change on farm produce.
Congruently, climate change mitigation refers to activities embraced to deal with the causes of climate change. It refers to the activities or efforts used to reduce the number of greenhouse gasses released. Food and Agricultural Organisation, FAO, defines climate change mitigation as a systematised method whereby people pursue or strive to lessen the amount of climate change by reducing the emissions of carbon and other greenhouse gasses.
However, climate change mitigation strategies are rarely adopted in Africa because of inadequate resources and low technical skills needed to adopt the process. Despite the fact that majority of the farmers in the study area are aware of climate change yet they fail to implement mitigation strategies. Subsequently, this negligence has become a major concern for agricultural policy in Africa, South Africa inclusive.
As earlier stated though agriculture is known to contribute to the cause of climate change, yet it is affected by the same phenomenon. Equally, agriculture has the same potential to fight climate change, by reducing the greenhouse gasses. As a party to the Paris climate agreement, South Africans are indebted to take cognisance of climate change, its impact, and causes, besides being committed to mitigation and adaptation efforts which focus largely on agriculture and land use management so as to lessen greenhouse gas emissions and increase carbon sequestration.
Forestation, an act of cultivating forest trees is a good example of climate change mitigation, a process whereby agroforestry can be used in the agricultural field to reduce the greenhouse gases. Following this, several studies have been conducted to assess the carbon sequestration potential of agroforestry. Agroforestry practices or technology is defined as the combination of agriculture, incorporating trees forest cultivation.
The practice is an intensive land use management and it is profitable for agricultural production. For instance, Nair et al. Zomer et al. Subsequently, agroforestry is classified into agrisilviculture, silvopastoral and agrosilvopastoral. Also, Briggs and Nerlich et al. The practice of agroforestry in South Africa is equally confirmed by Guiney , though not significant in number.
In the same manner, Zerihun et al. Furthermore, according to Bester , formal national policy or strategy needed to promote and support the development and implementation of agroforestry in South Africa is deficient.
Hence, it is baffling that despite the benefits of agroforestry practices, which include soil conservation and management, increase biodiversity, and especially its positive contribution to the process of atmospheric carbon sequestration climate change mitigation , the rate at which agroforestry is practiced in South Africa remains low Alao and Shuaibu, Numerous literature studies have affirmed the low level of agroforestry adoption as a mitigation strategy in South Africa.
Thus, it is obvious that majority of the farmers in South Africa do not use any mitigation strategy to adapt to climate change, an observation which is equally found in most developing countries. For instance, irrespective of the fact that most of the farmers in the study area are aware of climate change, they nevertheless did not adopt mitigation strategies, as significant it is to stem and managing the detrimental impact of climate change.
Considering its effectuality, it is expected that awareness should lead to mitigation practices. Accordingly, a simple resourceful and efficient mitigation strategy identified in Africa among other strategies is agroforestry practices or technology.
In other words, the argument is despite the fact that these farmers are obviously aware of climate change and its consequences, then why have they not bothered to alleviate the aftereffects?
Hence, the paper seeks to examine if awareness of climate change leads to the adoption of agroforestry practices. Second, the research seeks to investigate the factors that prevent farmers from adopting agroforestry practices since it is noticed that farmers rate of adoption of the practice or system is low or limited. There is no significant relationship between climate change awareness and adoption of agroforestry practices in the study area. The district comprises five local municipalities: Moses Kotane, Moretele, Kgetlengrivier, Madibeng and Rustenburg; these municipalities represent the seat of power in the district.
The population of the municipality is about 1. The mainstays in the area are mining, agriculture and community services. This area is selected purposely because of the availability of the small and emerging farmers, in addition to their being accessible. This study subjected both primary and secondary data to evaluation. Data were collected between and by administering a structured questionnaire to respondents in the study area.
The questionnaire consisted of a logic flow of questions involving demographics characteristics, climate change awareness and agroforestry-related issues. The questionnaires were explained to the local extension officers before the survey because they understood the farmers better and can translate the questionnaires into a local language.
The list of small and emerging maize farmers in the districts was obtained from the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries to determine the population of the small and emerging maize farmers in the study area. The sample size was determined using the Raosoft sample size calculator. The study adopted a stratified random sampling technique to group the population of the farmers from the five local municipalities into strata, after which a random sample was used to select from each stratum.
A specific number of respondents was selected from the population of each local municipality. A total of questionnaires were administered to respondents in the districts to ensure an objective outcome of the research Figure 1.
Heckprobit sample selection model was used to analyse the data because of its accurate and appropriate statistical method, and referred to a probit model with sample selection. The model is a two-step method used to estimate a sample selection when the two dependable variables are dichotomous.
The model is akin to a censored probit or double probit model or bivariate probit model with selection. The model has two separate probit models with correlated disturbances, just as the seemingly unrelated regression models SUR , and each probit model represents Stages 1 and 2 respectively. Stage 1 probit model in the selection equation and the Stage 2 probit model in the outcome equation.
That is, if the errors between the two probit models are independent of one another. The study used Heckprobit sample selection model to estimate the factors responsible for climate change awareness and the adoption of agroforestry practices for mitigation strategies, simultaneously, among the respondents. STATA statistical software version The model is appropriate for the study; first, because the two dependable variables are dichotomous in nature. Equation 5 is the second stage Heckprobit sample selection model which represents the outcome equation, where Z is the dependent variable which represents the probability of adoption of agroforestry practices.
While Table I shows the description of the variables used in the model, Table II pictures the summary for the descriptive statistics in which the mean, standard deviation, minimum and maximum values of the variables used in the model are identified. The result represented in Table III evinces that Majority of the respondents Likewise, about Majority of the respondents are between the ages of 41 and 50, and a consequent As presented in Table IV , the likelihood ratio test for the heckprobit selection model is not significant.
According to Van den Broeck et al. However, in this study, where the likelihood ratio test is insignificant, the probit regression model is estimated for the two stages equation awareness and adoption stage independently. This result is presented in Table IV where the coefficient and the z- value are shown.
Equally, according to Oduniyi , Ndambiri et al. Ajuang et al. While, Nhemachena and Hassan opine that farmers who are well experienced due to the number of years spent in the farming activities are more aware of climate change, and can also perceive its occurrence; given this, they have better information and knowledge on changes in climatic conditions in relation to crop management practices. A possible explanation for the increased awareness can be attributed to the fact that the farmers have access to information, which proves to be more effective in creating awareness than extension visit.
Nonetheless, extension visit provides a vital source of information on climate change as well as agricultural production and management practices.
The innovation and information obtained by the farmers on production activities are determined by the extension agents; thus, extension contacts are the carriers of change Idris et al. The implication is that the level of education has a significant difference in the farmers' awareness of climate change.
Climate change awareness and level of education enhance informed decision-making and play a significant role in increasing the adoption of agroforestry practices to mitigate climate change. This result aligns with Bayard et al. Likewise, the studies carried out by Deressa et al. The second stage of the analysis is shown in Table IV , and it points to the fact that farmers who are members of an association, i.
This finding correlated with the submission of Owombo et al. In the same vein, Kabwe et al. Equally, the investigation carried out also indicates that the source through which information is disseminated to the farmers in the study area determines the adoption of agroforestry practices.
Majority of the farmers, specifically
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Climate change is projected to increase global temperatures, which could affect the agricultural growing season and increase drought Noble et al. Understanding how to build livelihood resilience to the impacts of climate change such as floods and droughts is important because livelihood systems must adapt to global and local changes. Agroforestry may be able to build livelihood resilience to the impacts of climate change for smallholder farmers. Although there has been significant research about agroforestry technologies, less is known about how agroforestry contributes to building livelihood resilience Thorlakson and Neufeldt There has been a call from the academic and development communities for more empirical evidence about the links between agroforestry and livelihood resilience to climate change Lin , Thorlakson and Neufeldt Here, we strive to answer the call for more empirical evidence by drawing on field work in Isiolo County, Kenya to address the research question: How does agroforestry help smallholder farmers build livelihood resilience to floods and droughts? In examining this research question, our major objectives are to understand: 1 any relationships between practicing agroforestry and perceptions of floods and droughts, 2 specific agroforestry benefits that contribute to livelihood resilience, and 3 if and how agroforestry directly and indirectly builds livelihood resilience to floods and droughts.
Agroforestry for Adaptation and Mitigation to Climate Change
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It is globally accepted that climate change is presently the greatest threat to the sustainability of human livelihood and biodiversity. Most farmers in the study area are highly aware of climate change and its consequences on the farming system; however, mitigation strategies are clearly lacking. Among the mitigation, mechanism to reduce the threat is achieved by increasing the amount of carbon sinks and reducing greenhouse gas emission through the adoption of agroforestry practices. The purpose of this study is to determine if awareness on climate change leads to the adoption of agroforestry practices, and to examine the determinants. A total number of questionnaires were administered to the farmers in the district using stratified random sampling technique. Descriptive statistics and Heckprobit sample selection model were used to determine the objectives of the study. Regular number of extensions visit, information and training on agroforestry should be provided to the farmers in the study area.
Agricultural Landscapes Under Changing Conditions based upon a national scientific assessment of agroforestry Figure 1. With contributions from more than 50 experts from the United States, Canada, and Mexico, this report presents the first-ever synthesis on agroforestry as a mechanism for improving the resiliency of agricultural lands under climate change. Figure 1.
We test the hypothesis that agroforestry improves livelihoods and mitigates climate change in smallholder farming systems simultaneously. Data were collected using household surveys and standard biomass assessment approaches using locally relevant allometric equations. Summary statistics and regression analyses reveal linkages between on-farm carbon stocks and farm- and household characteristics.
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