Nginx Designing And Deploying Microservices Pdf

nginx designing and deploying microservices pdf

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designing and deploying microservices pdf

The way to build software has changed over time; there are now many paradigms, languages, architectures and methodologies. As a result, you can replicate them in different projects throughout your career, optimize resources and scale your applications in an agile way.

The beginning of my experience as a software developer was not easy; I had to change the paradigms I knew. I also had to read a lot, not only about technologies, but also about operating systems, volumes, and Unix sockets, among others things. In addition, I had to face challenges, and I am still facing them, because the implementations can be many, depending on the business requirements.

I had to learn to abstract a lot of business logic and divide it into reusable components, not only in one project, but also for use in other projects.

Thinking about microservices definitely helped me to be a better programmer and take on new challenges, especially since the programming language takes a secondary role.

Instead, this introduction will help us to understand many concepts that we can go into more detail in future posts about Backup as a Service BaaS and Disaster Recovery as a Service DRaaS.

In software development, as in politics, and certainly in many aspects of life the decisions we make while planning our project will affect its continuity in a positive or negative way. Divide and conquer or divide and rule, is a political concept born in Rome from its need to control cities after defeating one of its greatest rivals: the Latin League, a confederation of more than 30 tribes.

The concept is quite simple, instead of attacking 30 nations at the same time, they devised an adoption system in which each of the tribes could adhere to the empire and obtain its benefits. Other tribes had autonomy, but over time, gradually the independent tribes began adhering. Without much effort, they were able to control a large portion of land and people without having to use force. This is a great example not only of conciliation, but optimal resource management as well, because trying to control the tribes would have triggered riots, the dissolution of powers, and an increased investment in its military to contain them.

If we apply this to the framework of the general theory of systems, what Rome did is to divide a great system into several microsystems, thus diluting the entropy that can affect the great system by reducing it. Generally, when we start a project, we use a code generator such as SpringBoot, Cobuild, or Maven, among others or simply clone a boilerplate, where the core of our application becomes the business logic implemented by modules that define services.

Finally, around this, we create interfaces that serve as adapters for the outside. You can also easily scale them by simply duplicating the application and running it behind a load balancer. Unfortunately, this approach has a serious limitation: the complexity of implementation and deployment grows at the same rate as the application itself, just as a snowball would grow.

I have seen this when I talk with other friends who have worked in traditional financial companies, where one of their main complaints is the difficulty of learning about a project. You could almost forget about your weekend if you have to deploy something on a Friday night.

Unlike monolithic applications, these microservices have their own scope, are independent and communicate with each other to obtain services, that is, a service requesting services. There are many technologies to implement them; Docker is the most famous along with Docker Compose and Kubernetes, which are dominating the container providers market.

In this post, we will always talk about Docker, Docker Compose and Kubernetes. All these interactions and their set — that is, the sum of all these microservices — make the application work. Unlike Image 1, Image 2 describes each module of the application implemented as a microservice. For example, if you need to make changes in the notification module, you would only have to deploy that specific microservice, independently of the other application components.

The S. D Single responsibility, Open-closed, Liskov substitution, Interface segregation and Dependency investment principle is the theoretical concept behind microservices; but to execute it in practice poses many challenges. Although I had already worked with microservices in previous work experiences and in my personal projects, I faced a project which posed some difficulty.

This is something common that happens in microservices projects; there is still no methodology for how to implement them successfully, nor is there a microservices market available where you can buy and reuse them in your projects to save time and money.

In this project, each module was separated as its own microservice:. Each microservice except the gateway had its own database. In a monolithic application, each module shares its entities, since these are in the same directory in the case of interpreted languages or in the same memory space in the case of compiled languages. In this particular case, they were in completely independent scopes, where these entities only know the interfaces that the other entities know.

To solve this problem, depending on the complexity, you could choose one of these approaches:. If the problem is to share code, you could consider separating the common code in libraries and storing them in repositories to be installed via Gitflow. Another common problem when developing microservices is failing to identify responsibilities properly. I have seen gateways that implement business logic and some cases where they make the monolithic application an entire microservice.

This brings some inconveniences:. The architecture of microservices brings several advantages. In addition, you will be able to reuse them in most of your future projects. Containers are gaining momentum because they offer lightweight OS virtualization capabilities. They are commonly used to host single processes in isolation on the system.

While they offer clear advantages in terms of lightness and performance under several circumstances, they show limitations from the infrastructure management perspective. On the other hand, Server Virtualization has been widely adopted across sectors and industries because it provides simple mechanisms to manage the infrastructure, and group processes and applications. But it introduces several significant penalties in terms of deployment time, memory and processing overheads that vary with the nature of the applications that they host.

This is so because, unlike the monolithic application, this app would run while being distributed in different threads. Besides, the operating system will be able to better dispense its resources according to the demand of each. Pay attention to this conversation of a monolithic application with the operating system:. Assuming that the application receives requests per minute just for login, MA will be reserving memory for all application modules, no matter how much load they are receiving.

The gateway will receive all the requests and will redirect them to the corresponding microservices. This means that the OS will allocate more resources for itself, while reducing the resources mostly processing and memory exchange for the microservices of low use.

This means that there will be better system resource management. Implementing microservices is not an easy task. However, if you properly define the responsibilities, the communication protocols and the data flows, it can be a success.

Here are some basic tips for implementing it properly and overcoming common microservices challenges:. Microservices are expensive; you need to invest time and effort to build quality microservices.

However, this opens the door to a world of possibilities. My experience with microservices at previous projects has left me with some great lessons, not only about software development, but also about networks, operating systems, and methodologies. Generally, companies, due to a lack of resources, cannot devote a team only to the development of these components. I developed microservices for pre-rendering pages in JavaScript, gateways, authentication, access control, SQLProxy of Gcloud, headless chrome, and bookstack for documentation.

Also, I deployed Moodle as a microservice, and created a sandbox. I did not develop them overnight; on the contrary, we defined a thorough methodology for building them:. We could have a microservice for functionalities such as:. In upcoming posts, we will talk more about Disaster Recovery as a Service DRaaS and Backup as a Service BaaS , but before reaching those subjects, I had to give an introduction to microservices challenges because we will need many of these concepts for future reference.

Eliecer is in love with programming since He fell for Javascript in and since he's all about DevOps, portability, scaled and high availability. Divide and Conquer: Microservices Challenges. In this post, I want to give a brief introduction to microservices challenges and how it can be an alternative to software development. Monolithic applications: a snowball Generally, when we start a project, we use a code generator such as SpringBoot, Cobuild, or Maven, among others or simply clone a boilerplate, where the core of our application becomes the business logic implemented by modules that define services.

Image 1: Example of an application. So, what is a microservice? Image 2: The previous application decomposed in microservices. Microservices Challenges Although I had already worked with microservices in previous work experiences and in my personal projects, I faced a project which posed some difficulty. And, there was a gateway microservice. Theoretically, this microservice serves as the entry point for a client web, mobile, iot, etc … ; its responsibility is to redirect each request to the appropriate microservice.

Surely, you have already noticed one of the first challenges. What happens when two microservices share entities or relationships with other entities? To solve this problem, depending on the complexity, you could choose one of these approaches: A microservice for the database of your application and a database for exclusive use of your microservice.

Each microservice implementing an interface that allows other microservices to interact with it. Theoretically, this is good, however, we would be adding extra load to our microservices network. Resources are wasted. What happens if an event occurs and the heavy microservice stops responding? Two things might happen: raising this microservice will be expensive in terms of processing; if the lifetime periods are too short, you could replicate this heavy microservice.

Why should you try microservices? Pay attention to this conversation of a monolithic application with the operating system: At the moment of starting the monolithic application MA Assuming that the application receives requests per minute just for login, MA will be reserving memory for all application modules, no matter how much load they are receiving.

How to implement microservices without dying from the attempt Implementing microservices is not an easy task. Here are some basic tips for implementing it properly and overcoming common microservices challenges: Focus on making your microservice reusable regardless of the project.

You could start building a gateway; without any business logic, only the one you need to execute your task which means, redirecting requests. Examine other microservices in public repositories. Github or Docker hub are good options, as there are people who are doing it really well. Use a container management platform for your microservices, for example, Kubernetes. Stop if you realize that you are adding responsibilities from one microservice to another that has nothing to do with it.

Final considerations about Microservices challenges Microservices are expensive; you need to invest time and effort to build quality microservices. I did not develop them overnight; on the contrary, we defined a thorough methodology for building them: Choose a project to start. Preferably a new project, which allows you to create the structure to your liking.

Share the microservice with your colleagues. Your colleagues can then create tickets for missing functionalities.

designing and deploying microservices pdf

You are developing a server-side enterprise application. It must support a variety of different clients including desktop browsers, mobile browsers and native mobile applications. The application might also expose an API for 3rd parties to consume. It might also integrate with other applications via either web services or a message broker. There are logical components corresponding to different functional areas of the application. Define an architecture that structures the application as a set of loosely coupled, collaborating services.

F5 and NGINX: Going Forward with Kubernetes

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Microservices Design and Deployment With NGINX _ Free eBook

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As F5 Networks works to integrate its acquisition of NGINX , it has pledged commitment to Kubernetes , not just to integrate with the orchestrator, but to fully participate in the open source project. NGINX is a new unit within the company with engineers added to that team. However, F5 has a richer suite of web application security capabilities.

Work fast with our official CLI. Learn more. If nothing happens, download GitHub Desktop and try again. If nothing happens, download Xcode and try again. If nothing happens, download the GitHub extension for Visual Studio and try again. The idea for this project is to show a case for applying Microservice Architecture using multiple languages. Feel free to create a new microservice using a different language Ruby?


Download the latest ebook from NGINX, "Microservices: From Design to Deployment", to start learning what you need to know about.


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Microservices are an application architecture style where independent, self-contained programs with a single purpose each can communicate with each other over a network. Typically, these microservices are able to be deployed independently because they have strong separation of responsibilities via a well-defined specification with significant backwards compatibility to avoid sudden dependency breakage. Microservices follow in a long trend of software architecture patterns that become all the rage.

Learn the key concepts for developing a microservices-based app. Converting your apps to a microservices approach makes them more flexible, more stable, and far faster and easier to update. However, questions arise as to how to make the transition. The seven-part series on microservices development published in the NGINX blog provided many of the answers. Now, we have created an ebook that combines these blog posts with information on how to use NGINX Plus to bring microservices to life as you develop and deploy your apps.

The way to build software has changed over time; there are now many paradigms, languages, architectures and methodologies. As a result, you can replicate them in different projects throughout your career, optimize resources and scale your applications in an agile way. The beginning of my experience as a software developer was not easy; I had to change the paradigms I knew.

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This book focuses on the key scenarios where microservices architecture is preferred over a monolithic architecture.

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