Problems In Modern Latin American History Sources And Interpretations Pdf

problems in modern latin american history sources and interpretations pdf

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As a term, both phrases are used in contemporary 21st-century political analysis in the media and elsewhere to refer to a move toward more progressive economic or social policies in Latin America.

The Latin American countries viewed as part of this ideological trend have been referred to as pink tide nations, [4] with the term post-neoliberalism being used to describe the movement as well.

The pink tide was followed by the conservative wave , a political phenomenon that emerged in the mids in South America as a direct reaction to the pink tide. During the Cold War , a series of left-leaning governments were elected in Latin America.

These governments faced coups sponsored by the United States government as part of its geostrategic interest in the region. All of these coups were followed by United States-backed and sponsored right-wing military dictatorships as part of the United States government's Operation Condor. New democratic processes began during the late s and up to the early s. Following the third wave of democratization in the s, the institutionalization of electoral competition in Latin America opened up the possibility for the left to ascend to power.

For much of the region's history, formal electoral contestation excluded leftist movements, first through limited suffrage and later through military intervention and repression during the second half of the 20th century.

As a result, the United States no longer perceived leftist governments as a security threat, creating a political opening for the left. In the s, the left exploited this opportunity to solidify their base, run for local offices and gain experience governing on the local level. At the end of the s and early s, the region's initial unsuccessful attempts with the neoliberal policies of privatization, cuts in social spending and foreign investment left countries with high levels of unemployment, inflation and rising inequality.

With the difficulties facing emerging markets across the world at the time, Latin Americans turned away from liberal economics and elected leftist leaders who had recently turned toward more democratic processes. As the prices of commodities lowered into the s, coupled with overspending with little savings by pink tide governments, policies became unsustainable and supporters became disenchanted, eventually leading to the rejection of leftist governments.

By the mids, Chinese investment in Latin America had also begun to decline, [38] especially following the — Chinese stock market crash. In , the shift away from the left became more pronounced in Latin America, with The Economist saying the pink tide had ebbed [42] and Vice News stating that was "The Year the 'Pink Tide' Turned".

Shortly afterwards the impeachment of Brazilian president Dilma Rousseff began, culminating in her removal from office. Some pink tide governments, such as Bolivia, Ecuador, and Venezuela, allegedly ignored international sanctions against Iran , allowing the Iranian government access to funds bypassing sanctions as well as resources such as uranium for the Iranian nuclear program.

On 12 July , former Brazilian President Lula was convicted of money laundering and passive corruption, defined in Brazilian criminal law as the receipt of a bribe by a civil servant or government official.

On 9 June , The Intercept released a trove of documents that showed Judge Sergio Moro acted politically in his ruling. The pink tide governments aimed to improve the welfare of the constituencies that brought them to power, which they attempted through measures intended to increase wages, such as raising minimum wages , and softening the effects of neoliberal economic policies through expanding welfare spending , such as subsidising basic services and providing cash transfers to vulnerable groups such as the unemployed, mothers outside of formal employment and the precariat.

Morales's government was praised internationally for its reduction of poverty, economic growth [51] and the improvement of indigenous, women [52] and LGBTI rights [53] in the very traditionally-minded Bolivian society. During his first five years in office, Bolivia's Gini coefficient saw an unusually sharp reduction from. Before Lula's election, Brazil suffered from one of the highest rates of poverty in the Americas, with the infamous favelas known internationally for its levels of extreme poverty, malnutrition and health problems.

Extreme poverty was also a problem in rural areas. During Lula's presidency several social programs like Zero Hunger Fome Zero were praised internationally for reducing hunger in Brazil, [54] poverty and inequality while also improving the health and education of the population. A analysis by staff at Argentina's National Scientific and Technical Research Council estimated that the programme had increased school attendance for children between the ages of 15 to 17 by 3. Their administrations also achieved a drop of 20 percentage points in the proportion of the population living on three US dollars a day or less.

As a result Argentina also became one of the most equal countries in the region according to its Gini coefficient. Lugo's government was praised for its social reforms, including investments in low-income housing, [60] the introduction of free treatment in public hospitals, [61] [62] the introduction of cash transfers for Paraguay's most impoverished citizens [63] and indigenous rights. Some of the initial results after the first pink tide governments were elected in Latin America included a reduction in the income gap , [5] unemployment , extreme poverty , [5] malnutrition and hunger [2] [65] and rapid increase in literacy.

Countries like Ecuador, [67] [68] El Salvador, Nicaragua [69] and Costa Rica [70] experienced notable economic growth during this period whilst Bolivia and El Salvador both saw a notable reduction in poverty according to the World Bank. Economic hardships occurred in countries such as Argentina, Brazil and Venezuela as oil and commodity prices declined and according to analysts because of their unsustainable policies.

Following the initiation of the Pink Tide's policies, the relationship between both left-leaning and right-leaning governments and the public changed. A series of violent protests against austerity measures and income inequality scattered throughout Latin America have also recently occurred including the Chilean protests , — Colombian protests , —19 Haitian protests and the Ecuadorian protests.

As a term, the pink tide had become prominent in contemporary discussion of Latin American politics in the early 21st century. Despite the presence of a number of Latin American governments which professed to embracing a leftist ideology, it is difficult to categorize Latin American states "according to dominant political tendencies, like a red-blue post-electoral map of the United States ".

Ultimately, the term "the Pink Tide" is not a useful analytical tool as it encompasses too wide a range of governments and policies. In , The Arizona Republic recognized the growing pink tide, stating: "A couple of decades ago, the region, long considered part of the United States' backyard, was basking in a resurgence of democracy, sending military despots back to their barracks", further recognizing the "disfavor" with the United States and the concerns of "a wave of nationalist, leftist leaders washing across Latin America in a 'pink tide'" among United States officials.

A report from the Inter Press Service news agency said how "elections results in Latin America appear to have confirmed a left-wing populist and anti-U. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with red tide or Crimson Tide. This article possibly contains original research.

Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. November Learn how and when to remove this template message. Further information: s commodities boom. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. June Contexto Internacional Literature review. No matter the shades of pink in the Latin American 'pink tide', and recalling that political change was not the norm for the whole region during that period, there seems to be greater agreement when it comes to explaining its emergence.

In terms of this canonical interpretation, the left turn should be understood as a feature of general redemocratisation in the region, which is widely regarded as an inevitable result of the high levels of inequality in the region.

Latin American Socialisms and Their Discontents". Archived from the original on 6 April Retrieved 5 April Heeding the Latin American experience". Retrieved 28 December In general, one must say that these governments have as defining common feature ample and generous social inclusion policies that link effectively for social investments that certainly had an impact on regional social indicators LIMA apud SILVA, a.

In this sense, so far, all of these countries had positive improvements. Harvard International Review. South America, a historical bastion of populism, has always had a penchant for the left, but the continent's predilection for unsustainable welfarism might be approaching a dramatic end.

This "pink tide" also included the rise of populist ideologies in some of these countries, such as Kirchnerismo in Argentina, Chavismo in Venezuela, and Lulopetismo in Brazil. Nova Science Publishers. The wrong left, by contrast, was said to be populist, old-fashioned, and irresponsible Toronto: University of Toronto Press. Boston Globe. Retrieved 30 October BBC News. However, these analytical and taxonomic efforts often led to new dichotomies Patrice In Esparza, Marcia; Henry R.

Huttenbach; Daniel Feierstein eds. University of Chicago Press. Hixson Foreign Policy. Yale University Press. National Geographic. Retrieved 17 December The Shock Doctrine. New York: Picador. Latin America, the U. Journal of Third World Studies. Retrieved 24 October Archived from the original — search on 8 November Retrieved 5 December The Chicago Council on Public Affairs. April Archived from the original PDF on 20 April Pew Research Center.

Retrieved 18 August Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. The Midsouth Political Science Review. Arkansas Political Science Association. ISSN Retrieved 13 September Mises Institute. Vice News.

Retrieved 30 December

Gender and Sexuality in Latin America

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Problems in Modern Latin American History

Problems in Modern Latin American History. Now in its fifth edition, this leading reader has been updated with new readings and visual sources. This edition includes an added final chapter on current social movements to help students reflect on the ecological realities that inform their world. With its innovative combination of primary and secondary sources and thoughtful editorial analysis, this text is designed specifically to stimulate critical thinking in a wide range of courses on Latin American history since independence.

History of Latin America , history of the region from the pre-Columbian period and including colonization by the Spanish and Portuguese beginning in the 15th century, the 19th-century wars of independence, and developments to the end of the 20th century. Latin America is generally understood to consist of the entire continent of South America in addition to Mexico , Central America , and the islands of the Caribbean whose inhabitants speak a Romance language. The peoples of this large area shared the experience of conquest and colonization by the Spaniards and Portuguese from the late 15th through the 18th century as well as movements of independence from Spain and Portugal in the early 19th century.

Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject. The historiography of a specific topic covers how historians have studied that topic using particular sources, techniques, and theoretical approaches. Scholars discuss historiography by topic—such as the historiography of the United Kingdom , that of WWII , the British Empire , early Islam , and China —and different approaches and genres, such as political history and social history. Beginning in the nineteenth century, with the development of academic history , there developed a body of historiographic literature. The extent to which historians are influenced by their own groups and loyalties—such as to their nation state —remains a debated question.

The Americas

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Он уходил корнями в давние времена. В эпоху Возрождения скульпторы, оставляя изъяны при обработке дорогого мрамора, заделывали их с помощью сеrа, то есть воска. Статуя без изъянов, которую не нужно было подправлять, называлась скульптурой sin cera, иными словами - без воска. С течением времени это выражение стало означать нечто честное, правдивое. Английское слово sincere, означающее все правдивое и искреннее, произошло от испанского sin сега - без воска.

Компьютеры терпеть не могут бесконечности, поэтому выдают девятки.  - Она показала ему другую колонку.  - Видишь.

Беккер остановился. Тупик. Стоя возле креста, он слушал, как приближаются шаги Халохота, смотрел на распятие и проклинал судьбу. Слева послышался звон разбитого стекла.

 Руки на стол, - бросила она через плечо.  - Когда я уйду, пожалуйста, никаких глупостей.

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Фонтейн давно всем доказал, что близко к сердцу принимает интересы сотрудников. Если, помогая ему, нужно закрыть на что-то глаза, то так тому и. Увы, Мидж платили за то, чтобы она задавала вопросы, и Бринкерхофф опасался, что именно с этой целью она отправится прямо в шифровалку. Пора готовить резюме, подумал Бринкерхофф, открывая дверь. - Чед! - рявкнул у него за спиной Фонтейн.

Просунув раскаленный паяльник сквозь проволочный лабиринт у себя над головой, он действовал с величайшей осмотрительностью: опалить защитную оболочку провода значило вывести аппарат из строя. Еще несколько сантиметров, подумал Джабба. Работа заняла намного больше времени, чем он рассчитывал.

History of Latin America

Несколько этим озадаченная, она вызвала команду поиска и напечатала: НАЙТИ: СЛЕДОПЫТ Это был дальний прицел, но если в компьютере Хейла найдутся следы ее программы, то они будут обнаружены.

 Я не собираюсь тебя убивать. Мне нужен только ключ. - Какой ключ. Стратмор снова вздохнул. - Тот, который тебе передал Танкадо.

Если Танкадо не понял, что стал жертвой убийства, зачем ему было отдавать ключ. - Согласен, - сказал Джабба.  - Этот парень был диссидентом, но диссидентом, сохранившим совесть. Одно дело - заставить нас рассказать про ТРАНСТЕКСТ, и совершенно другое - раскрыть все государственные секреты. Фонтейн не мог в это поверить.

 Спасибо, мисс Флетчер.  - Он подал едва заметный знак, и ворота распахнулись. Проехав еще полмили, Сьюзан подверглась той же процедуре перед столь же внушительной оградой, по которой был пропущен электрический ток. Давайте же, ребята… уже миллион раз вы меня проверяли.