Groups And Organisational Culture Pdf

groups and organisational culture pdf

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Argues that organizations should be thought of as cultures rather than machines, and that managing is as much a social as a technical process.

Historically there have been differences among investigators regarding the definition of organizational culture. Edgar H. Schein , a leading researcher in this field, defined "organizational culture" as comprising a number of features, including a shared "pattern of basic assumptions" which group members have acquired over time as they learn to successfully cope with internal and external organizationally relevant problems. The study concerned itself with the description, analysis, and development of corporate group behaviours. Ravasi and Schultz characterise organizational culture as a set of shared assumptions that guide behaviors.

Organizational Culture: The Key to Effective Leadership and Organizational Development

To browse Academia. Skip to main content. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Alex Keya. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. Different organizations have different cultures that are shared amongst them. These cultures however are passed on from one generation to the other, making it easy for any member joining the organization to learn, cope and adapt them.

However, cultures may differ from one organization to the other. For example, some organizations have H. R Departments, while others have P. R Departments performing similar roles. In other words, an organization results when people gather and formally agree to combine their efforts for a common purpose. Stephen P. Culture on the other hand can be defined as the collective programming of the mind that distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from others.

Consequently, organizational culture can be defined as the collective programming of the mind that distinguishes the members of one organization from others. Historically determined: Reflecting the history of the organization. Related to the things anthropologists study: Such as rituals and symbols. Socially constructed: Created and preserved by the group of people who together form the organization Organizational culture can also be defined as the behaviour of humans within an organization and the meaning that people attach to those behaviours.

According to Needle , organizational culture represents the collective values, beliefs and principles of organizational members and is a product of such factors as history, product, market, technology, and strategy, type of employees, management style and national culture. Culture includes the organization's vision, values, norms, systems, symbols, language, assumptions, beliefs, and habits. Ravasi and Schultz wrote that organizational culture is a set of shared assumptions that guide what happens in organizations by defining appropriate behaviour for various situations.

Organizational culture is also a pattern of such collective behaviours and assumptions that are taught to new organizational members as a way of perceiving and, even, thinking and feeling. Schein , Deal and Kennedy , and Kotter advanced the idea that organizations often have very differing cultures as well as sub-cultures Although a company may have its "own unique culture", in larger organizations there are sometimes co-existing or conflicting sub- cultures because each sub-culture is linked to a different management team.

Organizational culture also refers to culture in any type of organization including that of schools, universities, government agencies, or business entities. In business, terms such as corporate culture and company culture are sometimes used to refer to a similar concept. It is based on shared attitudes, beliefs, customs, and written and unwritten rules that have been developed over time and are considered valid. It is shown in: i.

The ways the organization conducts its business, treats its employees, customers, and the wider community, ii. The extent to which freedom is allowed in decision making, developing new ideas, and personal expression, iii.

How power and information flow through its hierarchy, and iv. How committed employees are towards collective objectives. It affects the organization's productivity and performance, and provides guidelines on customer care and service, product quality and safety, attendance and punctuality, and concern for the environment.

It also extends to production-methods, marketing and advertising practices, and to new product creation. In conclusion, organizational culture is thus unique for every organization and it cannot be easily changed. These are referred to ethics which govern how the employees and managers would work. They help them more especially in decision making since what is wrong and what is right according to the organization, is defined.

The employment relationship: - This refers to the nature of the employment relationship an organization establishes with its employees. How hard employees work is something that can be highly influenced by how much they earn, that is the payments, and also what benefits they get.

For example, the company would have a policy that considers offering promotions to those who work within the organization. Organizational Structures: - A particular type of structure is needed in order to create a certain culture and managers often design it. We have structures that are tall and highly centralized, that give rise to a different set of norms, rules and cultural values, unlike structures that are flat and decentralized.

Norms found in tall, centralized organizations include being cautious, obedient, and respectful. In this particular structure, stability and predictability are the desired goals. In flat, decentralized structures people have more freedom to choose and control their own activities and norms that focus on being creative and courageous and taking risks.

This structure treats innovation and flexibility as the desired goals. Characteristics of Organizational Members: The source of organizational culture is the People who make up the organization. This simply means that what happens within the organization is characterized by its members, and adopted as the culture. Over time, people who do not fit in leave. This is because the people inside the organization become more similar and the values of the organization become more pronounced and clear-cut, hence the culture becomes distinct from those of similar organizations.

For example, Safaricom and Airtel. Components of organizational culture A clear purpose and mission statement: Represents one of the major elements of strong organizational culture. A defined mission statement which is easily understood by everyone in the organization is a sign of a strong culture. Without a guiding mission statement, organizations will have to struggle to accomplish or find an identity of their own. Open communication: If organizations implement an open-door communication policy, it will help the employees to avoid conflicts in the workplace.

Implementing an open door policy can help foster communication between management and lower-level employees. This type of policy is designed to help eliminate barriers between the various levels of management and help promote fairness. Therefore, a strong organizational culture should give emphasis on transparency of information, thus help in reducing rumors and gossips hence improving morale of the employees in an organization.

Consistency: Culture is based on traditions. When you come up with great programs or events, make them regular events and do them consistently. One-time efforts to improve the culture will feel insincere. This can take years, but it makes a profound difference that pays off when employees enjoy where they work and genuinely like their colleagues. Commitment to Learning: Show the employees that you are committed to their professional growth. This can be done in small incremental steps. For instance, one can set up a book club.

But it can become more formal over time by subscribing to online learning programs or developing management training courses or programs. Connect: Do not isolate yourself at the top.

One should therefore connect with people at all levels of the organization. This would mean that, you get out of your comfort zone. In other words, they are the rules or laws that govern a group's or a society's behaviours.

They vary widely across cultural groups. Americans, for instance, maintain fairly direct eye contact when conversing with others. Asians, on the other hand, may avert their eyes as a sign of politeness and respect. Sociologists speak of at least four types of norms: folkways, mores, taboos, and laws. Mores: are norms of morality. Breaking mores, like attending church in the nude, will offend most people of a culture. Laws: are a formal body of rules enacted by the state and backed by the power of the state.

Virtually all taboos, like child abuse, are enacted into law, although not all mores are. For example, wearing a bikini to church may be offensive, but it is not against the law. Members of a culture must conform to its norms for the culture to exist and function. Hence, members must want to conform and obey rules. Social control may take the form of excommunication, fines, punishments, and even imprisonment.

Values on the other hand are the commonly held standards of what is acceptable or unacceptable, important or unimportant, right or wrong, fair or just, etc. It can also refer to behaviours that contribute to the unique social and psychological environment of an organization. Cultural values are a significant element of how a person or group of people conducts their businesses. People need to be aware that individuals from different cultures may have different ideas of what is and what is not ethical within the organization.

Norms and values in organizational culture bring about different cultural backgrounds therein causing cultural differences in the organization, which turns out to be a good thing for these organizations as different ideas and viewpoints can bring about positive change.

Living in a global economy, training and awareness concerning the cultural values and taboos of others can only be a valuable resource when undertaking business on the global front. They help shape the way an organization conducts its business, treats its employees, customers, and the wider community.

Norms and values in organizational culture aid to bring employees together in harmony, aimed at one overall goal of the organization, hence are committed towards collective objectives as an organization as well as individual. Organizational values and norms reflect the mission and strategic goals of the organization. Simmerly , p. Svetlik , p. He further adds that organizational values are intended to inspire employees with creative energy that will push organization forward towards desired goals.

Cingula , pp. Culture in an organization is experienced between the employees.

The Leader’s Guide to Corporate Culture

Management Control pp Cite as. In this chapter the focus will be on cultures that characterise an organisation. The study of human groups as cultures owes its origins to the early writing in anthropology of Margaret Mead , Malinowski , Radcliffe-Brown and, more recently, to Levi-Strauss and Geertz Aspects that are now associated with organisational culture have been studied in the organisational behaviour literature by writers such as Whyte , Dalton , Blau and Roy For academic researchers, culture became a framework for understanding and attributing meaning to the structures, systems, events, interactions and other phenomena that take place in organisations. Several popular management writers have suggested that an effective culture can be planned and implemented rationally. It is only very recently that academic researchers have begun to investigate the significance of culture for control systems.


business management and let the organizational culture have the right impact on employees. For an organization, employee is its basic constituent units, and culture is the tmeastafrica.org​pdf.


ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND COMMUNICATION

Organizational culture is quite complex. Every company has its own unique personality, just like people do. The unique personality of an organization is referred to as its culture. In groups of people who work together, organizational culture is an invisible but powerful force that influences the behavior of the members of that group.

Organisational culture and control

Every organization is different, and all of them have a unique culture to organize groups of people.

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To browse Academia. Skip to main content. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF.

Members may download one copy of our sample forms and templates for your personal use within your organization. Neither members nor non-members may reproduce such samples in any other way e. The key to a successful organization is to have a culture based on a strongly held and widely shared set of beliefs that are supported by strategy and structure. When an organization has a strong culture, three things happen: Employees know how top management wants them to respond to any situation, employees believe that the expected response is the proper one, and employees know that they will be rewarded for demonstrating the organization's values. Employers have a vital role in perpetuating a strong culture, starting with recruiting and selecting applicants who will share the organization's beliefs and thrive in that culture, developing orientation, training and performance management programs that outline and reinforce the organization's core values and ensuring that appropriate rewards and recognition go to employees who truly embody the values. An organization's culture defines the proper way to behave within the organization. This culture consists of shared beliefs and values established by leaders and then communicated and reinforced through various methods, ultimately shaping employee perceptions, behaviors and understanding.


Organisational culture is a widely used term but one that seems to give terms of rewarding the sub-culture groups that espouse the dominant _tmeastafrica.org


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Executives are often confounded by culture, because much of it is anchored in unspoken behaviors, mindsets, and social patterns. Many leaders either let it go unmanaged or relegate it to HR, where it becomes a secondary concern for the business. This is a mistake, because properly managed, culture can help them achieve change and build organizations that will thrive in even the most trying times. The authors have reviewed the literature on culture and distilled eight distinct culture styles: caring, focused on relationships and mutual trust; purpose, exemplified by idealism and altruism; learning, characterized by exploration, expansiveness, and creativity; enjoyment, expressed through fun and excitement; results, characterized by achievement and winning; authority, defined by strength, decisiveness, and boldness; safety, defined by planning, caution, and preparedness; and order, focused on respect, structure, and shared norms. They can be used to diagnose and describe highly complex and diverse behavioral patterns in a culture and to model how likely an individual leader is to align with and shape that culture.

Organizational culture

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Organizational Culture: Definition, Characteristics, Roles, Types

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Looking at the question how the organisation culture affects the innovation strategy of the organizations. The article will also depict the influence.

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some other definitions of organizational culture: The culture of an organization refers to the unique configuration of norms, values,. • beliefs and ways of.

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