Key Agreement Protocols And Their Security Analysis Pdf

key agreement protocols and their security analysis pdf

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Metrics details. Secure protocol is a vital guarantee in all kinds of communication network environment.

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Key Agreement Protocols and Their Security Analysis

Metrics details. Secure protocol is a vital guarantee in all kinds of communication network environment. Designing on authenticated key exchange protocols is a hotspot in the field of information security at present, and the related theories have been increasingly mature. However, there is still scarcely any appropriate security protocol to guarantee the communication security of wireless body area networks WBANs. In this paper, according to the standards on WBAN, we define a layered network model in accordance with the definition of two-hop star network topology firstly.

In line with this model, we put forward two new authenticated key exchange protocols based on symmetric cryptosystem, which are suitable for WBAN application scenario. The proposed protocols support the selective authentication between nodes in WBAN. Simultaneously, two pairs of session key are generated efficiently and succinctly in each certification process.

Finally, after security analyzing and performance evaluating demonstrate that the proposed key agreement protocols are proved to meet desired security properties with light computation and communication overhead. The proposed protocols provide a primitive to develop efficient and secure WBAN systems.

Authenticated key exchange protocols are important and have been widely applied in network communication. By a pre-registration, two communication parties share a secret symmetric key with a trusted server correspondingly. When the two participants try to exchange any information with authentication property confidentially in an insecure environment, they must be in agreement on a new secret session key by the help of a server. This kind of key exchange method is called three-party authenticated key exchange 3PAKE , and the 3PAKE protocols typically are employed for mutual authentication and secure communication in various applications.

A good design of 3PAKE protocols should meet various security requirements of different applications, which are described as follows. Mutual authentication: The participants of protocols should be authenticated by the server and also they must be authenticated each other by themselves.

Session key security: The agreed session key should only be known by parties who participate in communication process. Perfect forward secrecy: Perfect forward secrecy is the property that a session key derived from a set of long-term keys will not be compromised if one of the long-term key is compromised in the future.

In recent years, many three-party authenticated key exchange protocols have been proposed [ 1 — 10 ] in recent years. Yeh et al. One was a plaintext-equivalent authentication protocol and the other was a verifier-based authentication protocol.

Lee et al. Guo et al. Then, they have provided an improved version. However, both of the two improved versions in [ 11 ] and [ 12 ] had more computation cost than the original S-3PAKE protocol though they are more secure. With efficiency and security in consideration, the number of protocol execution steps and the complexity of cryptographic operations have been used to measure the performance of the existing 3PAKE schemes.

In [ 1 — 3 ], the authors presented several symmetric key-based authenticated key exchange protocols, respectively. WBAN is the embranchment of wireless sensor network, which can benefit to monitor and improve health conditions of people, surveillance of old age, and handicapped people [ 13 ].

It can further improve quality of life by monitoring and examining the vital signs e. The study on wireless body area network is in a fledging period at present, meanwhile IEEE raised WBANs include various types of medical and non-medical sensors equipped in and on human bodies to monitor different biological information of people. So, simplicity is an important factor in devising a new protocol for WBANs. Design considerations for efficient key exchange protocols for WBANs are as follows:.

The proposed key agreement protocol should not require lots of energy and memory because sensor nodes are already resource constraints. Communication messages should be of low redundancy rate and minimum message exchange between the nodes. Possible attacks in wireless channel such as replaying attack, eavesdropping attack, denial of service attack, Byzantine attack, etc.

Star topology is largely used in the WBANs, which is simple and easy to control. In this topology, it is possible to partition the sensor nodes according to their location: on the head; on the torso; and on the limbs [ 15 ]. However, it will impose higher energy costs for communications involving nodes that are distant from the BAN Network Controller.

For these nodes, we could consider using relay nodes. Till date, there are very few security protocols [ 16 — 18 ] designed for this kind of network topology in WBANs. We propose two novel three-party authenticated key exchange protocols between controller node and sensor nodes in different situations.

Due to the calculation ability and the storage capacity of sensor nodes, new protocols are specially based on symmetric cryptography. The rest of this paper is structured as follows. Section 2 briefly introduces the network model of WBANs.

In Section 3 , two three-party key exchanged protocols are proposed in different application scenarios, namely normal situation and critical or special situation. Section 4 presents the formal demonstration by BAN logic and security analysis of the new protocols.

The performance comparisons between proposed protocols and others are conducted in Section 5. Finally, conclusion is drawn in Section 6. WBAN is a special branch of the wireless sensor network. It is a human body-centered communication network [ 19 ], consisting of body-related elements, including devices such as sensors distributed within and deployed around the human body.

Through WBAN, people can transfer data of intracorporal sensors to the terminal equipments taken along, implement real-time health monitoring and auxiliary diagnosis of disease further for the patients [ 20 ], and meanwhile realize the network interconnection within the scope of human and so forth.

The Here, except the hub, we differentiate the nodes as primary node and secondary node logically while the nodes have the same attribute. The affiliation of the nodes is shown in Fig. The link hub- S 1 - S 11 means the two-hop connection between the hub and secondary node S 11 , and hub- S 2 - S 21 means the two-hop connection between the hub and secondary node S Simultaneously, a portion of primary nodes S i are connected with the corresponding secondary nodes S i 1 in the second layer.

Here, actually, the primary node plays the rule of relay node. In the initial condition, authentication process of each node should be conducted at the first place, before the session key is generated. It requires the adoption of authentication and key exchange protocol. In this section, we give the description of two proposed protocols using two-hop star topology. The protocols are explained in two different application scenarios. For the sake of simplicity, we make S denote the control node and B , C , D represent the primary nodes respectively, with A representing a secondary node.

In the initial state, the control node S keeps the pre-shared key K bs with primary node B , and K cs with C , also K ds with D , S shares the pre-shared key K as with secondary nodes A identically. In normal cases, the normal nodes periodically collect data from sensor nodes in WBANs and then send these data to the hub. If secondary node is near enough to the hub, it can establish connection with the hub directly.

If not, it has to find a primary node as a relay to complete the connection. Protocol I begins with a message broadcasted by a secondary node A. After receiving the message from A , the adjacent node B , C , D generates encrypted message respectively according to the received message, then send it to the control node S. Subsequently, S determines which primary node is appropriate to be connected with node A. At the same time, S replies to C , D to inform about the connection failure.

Authentication flow diagram is shown in Fig. The secondary node A , which is supposed to access to the network for authentication, broadcasts Message 1 including its own identifier A and generates a random number Na. B sends a message encrypted with the pre-shared key K bs to S , which contains identifier A , random Na , identifier B , and random number Nb generated by node B. Node C , D also sends the same type of messages. After receiving the request messages sent by primary nodes, S decrypts the messages by pre-shared key.

At the same time, node C , D receives the replied messages from S and knows that it is unable to connect with A.

If so, A sends Nb encrypted with K ab to B , otherwise the authentication fails. After receiving the message from node A , node B tests whether the assumed Nb is identical with the original one, if so it shows that node A has received the correct session key, then end the protocol. In some special cases, the primary node and the secondary node must work together to analyze the data collected from the human body, for example, measuring the blood circulation system.

The primary node measures blood pressure, while the secondary node measures blood oxygen. Each primary node measuring blood pressure is connected to a secondary node measuring blood oxygen. That is to say, whenever a primary node broadcasts requirements, there must be a synergistic secondary node in response. The protocol II is proposed for this kind of special application cases.

The primary node B broadcasts a message first, and then the corresponding coordination secondary node A generates an encrypted message and sends it to the primary node B after receiving the broadcast message.

On receiving message from node A , node B attaches its own information and encrypts all of them, then sends them to the control node S. S decrypts and certificates the received message. Authentication flow chart is shown in Fig. The primary node B broadcasts its own identifier B and generates a random number Nb.

The secondary node A which cooperates with node B sends a message, which contains plain text identifier A , random Na , Nb , identifier B , and identifier A , identifier B , random Na encrypted with the pre-shared key K as.

After receiving Message 3, S decrypts the message and verifies it. After receiving the message from node B , A decrypts the front part of the message and uses K as to get K AB , random number and identifier, then verifies if the characteristic is right.

If so, the protocol performs successfully, otherwise the authentication fails. Primary and secondary nodes are synergistic, that is to say, the primary node sends messages to the control node S while the secondary node sends messages by virtue of primary nodes at the same time. After the protocol completes initialization and certification, the primary node B will send Message 2 to control node S , and secondary node A will send Message 1 to S. Security analysis is an important way of detecting possible security flaws in security protocols.

In this section, we give both the formalization analysis by BAN logic and non-formalization analysis of the proposed protocols. The two kinds of authenticated key exchange protocols are testified by the celebrated BAN logic in this subsection. The authentication logic is one of the most commonly used analysis tools of cryptographic protocols.

Efficient authenticated key exchange protocols for wireless body area networks

Based on mutual authentication, the session key is established for communication nodes on the open network. In order to satisfy fine-grained access control for cloud storage, the two-party attribute-based key agreement protocol TP-AB-KA was proposed. However, the existing TP-AB-KA protocol is high in the cost of computation and communication and is not unfit for application in a mobile cloud setting because mobile devices are generally resource constrained. Compared with the existing TP-AB-KA protocols, the computation cost and communication cost of our protocol are largely reduced. Key agreement KA protocol is an important component in cryptography. By establishing a session key, KA protocol provides security services of confidentiality, integrity, and availability for open communication on the network node. Sahai and Waters [ 2 ] first proposed ABE, which was used for fine-grained access control for cloud storage.

Peter Nose Security analysis of authenticated key agreement protocols and digital signature schemes. PhD thesis. Key agreement and digital signature are two significant and most useful contributions of modern cryptography. Such protocols and schemes allow two or more parties to establish a common session key securely in the presence of a malicious adversary and provide means of ensuring data origin authentication, data integrity and non-repudiation. Thus, secure key agreement protocols and signature schemes are fundamental building blocks for constructing complex higher-level protocols.

This page collates research relevant to TLS and its developement through the years. It may be incomplete. Needham, Roger M. Dolev, Danny, and Andrew Yao. Bellare, Mihir, and Phillip Rogaway.

Key Agreement Protocols and Their Security Analysis

In cryptography , a password-authenticated key agreement method is an interactive method for two or more parties to establish cryptographic keys based on one or more party's knowledge of a password. An important property is that an eavesdropper or man-in-the-middle cannot obtain enough information to be able to brute-force guess a password without further interactions with the parties for each few guesses. This means that strong security can be obtained using weak passwords.

Key agreement protocols and their security analysis

Security analysis of standard authentication and key agreement protocols utilising timestamps

The application of machine learning in the security analysis of authentication and key agreement protocol was first launched by Ma et al. In addition, their suggested framework is based on a multiclassification problem in which every protocol or dataset instance is either secure or prone to a security attack such as replay attack, key confirmation, or other attacks. In this paper, we show that multiclassification is not an appropriate framework for such analysis, since authentication protocols may suffer different attacks simultaneously.

Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Blake-Wilson and Don Johnson and A. Blake-Wilson , Don Johnson , A.

Three-party authentication key exchange 3PAKE is a protocol that allows two users to set up a common session key with the help of a trusted remote server, which is effective for secret communication between clients in a large-scale network environment. Since chaotic maps have superior characteristics, researchers have recently presented some of the studies that apply it to authentication key exchange and cryptography. Providing user anonymity in the authentication key exchange is one of the important security requirements to protect users' personal secrets.

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Все тихо и чисто. Перед сердечным приступом мистер Танкадо не почувствовал ничего, кроме легкого укола. - Травматическая пуля, - задумчиво повторил Беккер.  - Вот откуда шрам. - Весьма сомнительно, чтобы Танкадо связал свои ощущения с выстрелом.

Нуматака улыбнулся. Похоже, он снискал благословение - шичигосан. Скоро Нуматек станет единственным обладателем единственного экземпляра Цифровой крепости.

 Я вовсе не имела в виду твою жену.  - Она невинно захлопала ресницами.  - Я имела в виду Кармен.  - Это имя она произнесла с нарочитым пуэрто-риканским акцентом.

Смотри. Стратмор пришел вчера с самого утра, и с тех пор его лифт не сдвинулся с места. Не видно, чтобы он пользовался электронной картой у главного входа. Поэтому он определенно. Бринкерхофф с облегчением вздохнул: - Ну, если он здесь, то нет проблем, верно.

Когда они в ту ночь отправились спать, она старалась радоваться с ним вместе, но что-то в глубине души говорило ей: все это кончится плохо. Она оказалась права, но никогда не подозревала насколько. - Вы заплатили ему десять тысяч долларов? - Она повысила голос.

Это я гарантирую. Как только найдется недостающая копия ключа, Цифровая крепость - ваша. - Но с ключа могут снять копию. - Каждый, кто к нему прикоснется, будет уничтожен.

Он хотел их отключить. Для него важен был только один голос, который то возникал, то замолкал. - Дэвид, прости. Он увидел пятна света.

Джабба захохотал. - Сидит тридцать шесть часов подряд. Бедняга. Наверное, жена сказала ему не возвращаться домой.


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Key Agreement Protocols and Their Security Analysis. (Extended Abstract). Simon Blake-Wilson 1., Don Johnson 2, and Alfred Menezes 3. Dept. of Mathematics.