File Name: human blood groups and their importance .zip
The test is essential if you need a blood transfusion or are planning to donate blood. Your blood type is determined by what kind of antigens your red blood cells have on the surface. Antigens are substances that help your body differentiate between its own cells and foreign, potentially dangerous ones.
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The ABO blood group is the most important of all the blood group systems. These naturally occurring antibodies are mainly IgM immunoglobulins. They attack and rapidly destroy red cells carrying the corresponding antigen. If ABO incompatible red cells are transfused, red cell haemolysis can occur. There are more than 40 different kinds of Rh antigens. The most significant Rh antigen is RhD. Anti RhD or anti-D antibodies destroy RhD positive red cells and can lead to haemolytic transfusion reactions.
The authors do not work for, consult, own shares in or receive funding from any company or organisation that would benefit from this article, and have disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond their academic appointment. While it was once thought all blood was the same, we now know there are different types of blood, called blood groups. Transfusions between blood groups can be catastrophic, even deadly, so knowing the blood type of donors and recipients is of the utmost importance. Our bodies contain trillions of red blood cells. Each is covered in an array of proteins and sugars, inherited from our parents, which determine our blood group.
Join NursingCenter to get uninterrupted access to this Article. When you buy this you'll get access to the ePub version, a downloadable PDF, and the ability to print the full article. Human blood group antigens are unique, inherited polymorphisms on the extracellular surface of red blood cells. They have been used as genetically discrete markers of human polymorphism since the discovery of the ABO system in Since then, many blood group antigens have been identified, the genes cloned, and their biological significance elucidated.
blood group antigens often have a role e.g. structural, transport Most clinically important are ABO and Rh antibody is produced in their serum/plasma.
Blood groups systems
The term human blood group systems is defined by International Society of Blood Transfusion as systems in the human species where cell-surface antigens —in particular, those on blood cells—are "controlled at a single gene locus or by two or more very closely linked homologous genes with little or no observable recombination between them",  and include the common ABO and Rh Rhesus antigen systems, as well as many others; 38 major human systems are identified as of August Following is a comparison of clinically relevant characteristics of antibodies against the main human blood group systems: . Blood compatibility testing is performed before blood transfusion , including matching of the ABO blood group system and the Rh blood group system , as well as screening for recipient antibodies against other human blood group systems.
Anstee; The relationship between blood groups and disease. Blood ; 23 : — The relative contribution of founder effects and natural selection to the observed distribution of human blood groups has been debated since blood group frequencies were shown to differ between populations almost a century ago. Advances in our understanding of the migration patterns of early humans from Africa to populate the rest of the world obtained through the use of Y chromosome and mtDNA markers do much to inform this debate. There are clear examples of protection against infectious diseases from inheritance of polymorphisms in genes encoding and regulating the expression of ABH and Lewis antigens in bodily secretions particularly in respect of Helicobacter pylori , norovirus, and cholera infections.
ABO blood group system , the classification of human blood based on the inherited properties of red blood cells erythrocytes as determined by the presence or absence of the antigens A and B, which are carried on the surface of the red cells. See blood group. Blood containing red cells with type A antigen on their surface has in its serum fluid antibodies against type B red cells. In the same way, type A red cells will be destroyed by anti-A antibodies in type B blood. Type O blood can be injected into persons with type A, B, or O blood unless there is incompatibility with respect to some other blood group system also present.
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