File Name: child growth and development stages .zip
Definitions of stages of growth in childhood come from many sources. Theorists such as Jean Piaget, Lev Vygotsky, Lawrence Kohlberg, and Erik Erikson have provided ways to understand development, and recent research has provided important information regarding the nature of development. In addition, stages of childhood are defined culturally by the social institutions, customs, and laws that make up a society.
- Stages of Growth Child Development
- Child Growth and Development
- Child Development Theories and Examples
- The Stages of Child Development
What is child development and what skills do children develop at different ages. What is child development?
Stages of Growth Child Development
As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, developmental psychologists often divide our development into three areas: physical development, cognitive development, and psychosocial development. We will discuss prenatal, infant, child, adolescent, and adult development. How did you come to be who you are?
From beginning as a one-cell structure to your birth, your prenatal development occurred in an orderly and delicate sequence. There are three stages of prenatal development: germinal, embryonic, and fetal. In the discussion of biopsychology earlier in the book, you learned about genetics and DNA. Conception occurs when sperm fertilizes an egg and forms a zygote [link].
A zygote begins as a one-cell structure that is created when a sperm and egg merge. The genetic makeup and sex of the baby are set at this point. During the first week after conception, the zygote divides and multiplies, going from a one-cell structure to two cells, then four cells, then eight cells, and so on.
This process of cell division is called mitosis. Mitosis is a fragile process, and fewer than one-half of all zygotes survive beyond the first two weeks Hall, After 5 days of mitosis there are cells, and after 9 months there are billions of cells. As the cells divide, they become more specialized, forming different organs and body parts. Once it does, the next stage begins. After the zygote divides for about 7—10 days and has cells, it travels down the fallopian tubes and implants itself in the lining of the uterus.
Upon implantation, this multi-cellular organism is called an embryo. Now blood vessels grow, forming the placenta. The placenta is a structure connected to the uterus that provides nourishment and oxygen from the mother to the developing embryo via the umbilical cord. Basic structures of the embryo start to develop into areas that will become the head, chest, and abdomen.
During the embryonic stage, the heart begins to beat and organs form and begin to function. The neural tube forms along the back of the embryo, developing into the spinal cord and brain. When the organism is about nine weeks old, the embryo is called a fetus.
From 9—12 weeks, the sex organs begin to differentiate. At about 16 weeks, the fetus is approximately 4. Fingers and toes are fully developed, and fingerprints are visible. By the time the fetus reaches the sixth month of development 24 weeks , it weighs up to 1. Hearing has developed, so the fetus can respond to sounds. Throughout the fetal stage the brain continues to grow and develop, nearly doubling in size from weeks 16 to Around 36 weeks, the fetus is almost ready for birth.
It weighs about 6 pounds and is about The fetus continues to gain weight and grow in length until approximately 40 weeks. By then, the fetus has very little room to move around and birth becomes imminent. The progression through the stages is shown in [link]. During each prenatal stage, genetic and environmental factors can affect development. The developing fetus is completely dependent on the mother for life. It is important that the mother takes good care of herself and receives prenatal care , which is medical care during pregnancy that monitors the health of both the mother and the fetus [link].
According to the National Institutes of Health [NIH], , routine prenatal care is important because it can reduce the risk of complications to the mother and fetus during pregnancy.
In fact, women who are trying to become pregnant or who may become pregnant should discuss pregnancy planning with their doctor. They may be advised, for example, to take a vitamin containing folic acid, which helps prevent certain birth defects, or to monitor aspects of their diet or exercise routines. A pregnant woman receives an ultrasound as part of her prenatal care.
The placenta provides nourishment and oxygen to the fetus. A teratogen is any environmental agent—biological, chemical, or physical—that causes damage to the developing embryo or fetus. There are different types of teratogens. Alcohol and most drugs cross the placenta and affect the fetus. Alcohol is not safe to drink in any amount during pregnancy. Excessive maternal drinking while pregnant can cause fetal alcohol spectrum disorders with life-long consequences for the child ranging in severity from minor to major [link].
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders FASD are a collection of birth defects associated with heavy consumption of alcohol during pregnancy. Physically, children with FASD may have a small head size and abnormal facial features.
Cognitively, these children may have poor judgment, poor impulse control, higher rates of ADHD, learning issues, and lower IQ scores. These developmental problems and delays persist into adulthood Streissguth et al.
Smoking is also considered a teratogen because nicotine travels through the placenta to the fetus. When the mother smokes, the developing baby experiences a reduction in blood oxygen levels. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , smoking while pregnant can result in premature birth, low-birth-weight infants, stillbirth, and sudden infant death syndrome SIDS. Heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, almost all prescription medicines, and most over-the counter medications are also considered teratogens.
Babies born with a heroin addiction need heroin just like an adult addict. The child will need to be gradually weaned from the heroin under medical supervision; otherwise, the child could have seizures and die.
Other teratogens include radiation, viruses such as HIV and herpes, and rubella German measles. Women in the United States are much less likely to be afflicted with rubella because most women received childhood immunizations or vaccinations that protect the body from disease.
Each organ of the fetus develops during a specific period in the pregnancy, called the critical or sensitive period [link]. For example, research with primate models of FASD has demonstrated that the time during which a developing fetus is exposed to alcohol can dramatically affect the appearance of facial characteristics associated with fetal alcohol syndrome. As you now know, women who use drugs or alcohol during pregnancy can cause serious lifelong harm to their child.
This policy was tried in Charleston, South Carolina, as recently as 20 years ago. The Interagency Policy applied to patients attending the obstetrics clinic at MUSC, which primarily serves patients who are indigent or on Medicaid.
It did not apply to private obstetrical patients. The policy required patient education about the harmful effects of substance abuse during pregnancy. This policy seemed to deter women from seeking prenatal care, deterred them from seeking other social services, and was applied solely to low-income women, resulting in lawsuits.
The program was canceled after 5 years, during which 42 women were arrested. A federal agency later determined that the program involved human experimentation without the approval and oversight of an institutional review board IRB.
What were the flaws in the program and how would you correct them? What are the ethical implications of charging pregnant women with child abuse? The average newborn weighs approximately 7.
Although small, a newborn is not completely helpless because his reflexes and sensory capacities help him interact with the environment from the moment of birth. All healthy babies are born with newborn reflexes : inborn automatic responses to particular forms of stimulation. Reflexes help the newborn survive until it is capable of more complex behaviors—these reflexes are crucial to survival.
They are present in babies whose brains are developing normally and usually disappear around 4—5 months old. The sucking reflex is the automatic, unlearned, sucking motions that infants do with their mouths.
Several other interesting newborn reflexes can be observed. The baby spreads her arms, pulls them back in, and then usually cries. How do you think these reflexes promote survival in the first months of life? Take a few minutes to view this brief video clip illustrating several newborn reflexes. What can young infants see, hear, and smell? Although vision is their least developed sense, newborns already show a preference for faces. Newborns also have a strong sense of smell.
For instance, newborn babies can distinguish the smell of their own mother from that of others. In a study by MacFarlane , 1-week-old babies who were being breastfed were placed between two gauze pads. By 2 years old the weight will have quadrupled, so we can expect that a 2 year old should weigh between 20 and 40 pounds. The average length of a newborn is Children experience rapid physical changes through infancy and early childhood.
Growth slows between 4 and 6 years old: During this time children gain 5—7 pounds and grow about 2—3 inches per year. Once girls reach 8—9 years old, their growth rate outpaces that of boys due to a pubertal growth spurt.
This growth spurt continues until around 12 years old, coinciding with the start of the menstrual cycle. By 10 years old, the average girl weighs 88 pounds, and the average boy weighs 85 pounds. However, the nervous system continues to grow and develop. Each neural pathway forms thousands of new connections during infancy and toddlerhood. This period of rapid neural growth is called blooming.
Neural pathways continue to develop through puberty. The blooming period of neural growth is then followed by a period of pruning, where neural connections are reduced. It is thought that pruning causes the brain to function more efficiently, allowing for mastery of more complex skills Hutchinson,
Child Growth and Development
Learn about The Nobel Prizes that have been awarded since , as well as the criteria and nomination process that are used to select the winners. NASA Kids is an excellent site for "kids" of all ages and provides an abundance of information, images, and interesting things to do on astronomy and the space sciences. In this lesson, students learn about sources of high-energy radiation and calculate student exposure to ionizing radiation over the past year. To introduce students to the stages of human growth and development that take place during infancy and early childhood. This lesson is the first of a two-part series aimed at introducing students to the different stages of physical growth and development in human beings from birth to 18 years of age. In these lessons, students become familiar with the four key periods of growth and human development: infancy birth to 2 years old , early childhood 3 to 8 years old , middle childhood 9 to 11 years old , and adolescence 12 to 18 years old. For each stage of development, they learn about key physical stages or milestones, which are research and science-supported indicators that help to track the progress of a child's physical development at different stages of life.
Your baby is born and every day something new and exciting happens. Not just seemingly major events, like rolling over or taking that first brave step, but other tiny things that may not seem like milestones. Does she like to be hugged? Does she coo back or giggle when she sees a silly face? These questions are not part of a polite conversation although your pediatrician really does love to talk about your child. In fact, your answers are painting a picture of where your child is with regard to the stages of her development.
Publisher: College of the Canyons. Attribution CC BY. The text is excellent for its content and presentation. The only criticism is that neither an index nor a glossary are provided. Comprehensiveness rating: 3 see less. The material seems very accurate and current. It is well written.
Development is the gaining of skills in all aspects of the child's life. The different types We think about growth and development in five stages: infancy from birth.
Child Development Theories and Examples
As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, developmental psychologists often divide our development into three areas: physical development, cognitive development, and psychosocial development. We will discuss prenatal, infant, child, adolescent, and adult development. How did you come to be who you are? From beginning as a one-cell structure to your birth, your prenatal development occurred in an orderly and delicate sequence.
To help answer this important question, child development experts have created lots of different charts and checklists that can help you keep track of child development across several key domains:. More importantly, just 40 of those developmental milestones show up on all four checklists, which begs the question: Should you depend on a single checklist? The measures that doctors use may be different from those that parents can find in print or online checklists. It may also help to think of development as an individual progression, rather than as a list of boxes you should tick at certain prescribed intervals. Milestones are the things a child can do by a certain age.
The Whole Child 0 - 6 years. Children begin to socialize and play cooperatively with other children.
The Stages of Child Development
Child development theories focus on explaining how children change and grow over the course of childhood. Such theories center on various aspects of development including social, emotional, and cognitive growth. The study of human development is a rich and varied subject. We all have personal experience with development, but it is sometimes difficult to understand how and why people grow, learn, and act as they do. Why do children behave in certain ways? Is their behavior related to their age, family relationships, or individual temperaments?
Беккер шел, низко опустив голову. Халохот прокручивал в голове дальнейшие события. Все было очень просто: подойдя к жертве вплотную, нужно низко держать револьвер, чтобы никто не заметил, сделать два выстрела в спину, Беккер начнет падать, Халохот подхватит его и оттащит к скамье, как друга, которому вдруг стало плохо. Затем он быстро побежит в заднюю часть собора, словно бы за помощью, и в возникшей неразберихе исчезнет прежде, чем люди поймут, что произошло. Пять человек.
- Он похоронен в нашем соборе. Беккер удивленно посмотрел на. - Разве. Я думал, что он похоронен в Доминиканской Республике. - Да нет же, черт возьми. И кто только распустил этот слух.
This text is a presentation of how and why children grow, develop, and learn. We will look at how we PDF; MS Word This book is organized by developmental stages (infancy, toddler, early childhood, middle childhood and adolescence).
Сьюзан, чуть подтолкнув, усадила его на место. - Нет! - рявкнула. - Пойду я! - Ее тон говорил о том, что возражений она не потерпит. Стратмор закрыл лицо руками. - Хорошо.
Он попробовал встать, но настолько выбился из сил, что не смог ступить ни шагу и долго сидел, изможденный вконец, на каменных ступеньках, рассеянно разглядывая распростертое у его ног тело. Глаза Халохота закатились, глядя в пустоту. Странно, но его очки ничуть не пострадали.
Мы занимаемся легальным бизнесом. А вы ищете проститутку. - Слово прозвучало как удар хлыста. - Но мой брат… - Сэр, если ваш брат целый день целовался в парке с девчонкой, то это значит, что она работает не в нашем агентстве. У нас очень строгие правила относительно контактов клиента и сопровождающего.