File Name: project on industrial pollution and environmental degradation .zip
The Industrial Revolution changed the way that we created everything, from food and energy to sanitation and manufacturing technologies.
- Environmental Impacts of Industrialization
- What is Industrial Pollution?
- 10 Serious Effects of Air Pollution on the Environment
- Environmental issues in India
Environmental Impacts of Industrialization
Environmental degradation is the deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources such as air , water and soil ; the destruction of ecosystems ; habitat destruction ; the extinction of wildlife ; and pollution. It is defined as any change or disturbance to the environment perceived to be deleterious or undesirable. Environmental degradation is one of the ten threats officially cautioned by the High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change of the United Nations.
The United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction defines environmental degradation as "the reduction of the capacity of the environment to meet social and ecological objectives, and needs". When natural habitats are destroyed or natural resources are depleted, the environment is degraded. Efforts to counteract this problem include environmental protection and environmental resources management. Scientists assert that human activity has pushed the earth into a sixth mass extinction event.
The implications of these losses for human livelihoods and wellbeing have raised serious concerns. One major component of environmental degradation is the depletion of the resource of fresh water on Earth. Water transports nutrients, minerals and chemicals within the biosphere to all forms of life, sustains both plants and animals, and moulds the surface of the Earth with transportation and deposition of materials.
Water scarcity is an increasing problem due to many foreseen issues in the future including population growth, increased urbanization , higher standards of living , and climate change. Climate change affects the Earth's water supply in a large number of ways. It is predicted that the mean global temperature will rise in the coming years due to a number of forces affecting the climate.
The amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide CO 2 will rise, and both of these will influence water resources; evaporation depends strongly on temperature and moisture availability which can ultimately affect the amount of water available to replenish groundwater supplies. Transpiration from plants can be affected by a rise in atmospheric CO 2 , which can decrease their use of water, but can also raise their use of water from possible increases of leaf area.
Temperature rise can reduce the snow season in the winter and increase the intensity of the melting snow leading to peak runoff of this, affecting soil moisture, flood and drought risks, and storage capacities depending on the area.
Warmer winter temperatures cause a decrease in snowpack , which can result in diminished water resources during summer. This is especially important at mid-latitudes and in mountain regions that depend on glacial runoff to replenish their river systems and groundwater supplies, making these areas increasingly vulnerable to water shortages over time; an increase in temperature will initially result in a rapid rise in water melting from glaciers in the summer, followed by a retreat in glaciers and a decrease in the melt and consequently the water supply every year as the size of these glaciers get smaller and smaller.
Thermal expansion of water and increased melting of oceanic glaciers from an increase in temperature gives way to a rise in sea level. This can affect the fresh water supply to coastal areas as well. As river mouths and deltas with higher salinity get pushed further inland, an intrusion of saltwater results in an increase of salinity in reservoirs and aquifers. Uneven distributions of increased temperatures and increased precipitation around the globe results in water surpluses and deficits,  but a global decrease in groundwater suggests a rise in sea level, even after meltwater and thermal expansion were accounted for,  which can provide a positive feedback to the problems sea-level rise causes to fresh-water supply.
A rise in air temperature results in a rise in water temperature, which is also very significant in water degradation as the water would become more susceptible to bacterial growth.
An increase in water temperature can also affect ecosystems greatly because of a species' sensitivity to temperature, and also by inducing changes in a body of water's self-purification system from decreased amounts of dissolved oxygen in the water due to rises in temperature. A rise in global temperatures is also predicted to correlate with an increase in global precipitation but because of increased runoff, floods, increased rates of soil erosion , and mass movement of land, a decline in water quality is probable, because while water will carry more nutrients it will also carry more contaminants.
It is generally expected that, on average, global precipitation will increase, with some areas receiving increases and some decreases. Climate models show that while some regions should expect an increase in precipitation,  such as in the tropics and higher latitudes, other areas are expected to see a decrease, such as in the subtropics.
This will ultimately cause a latitudinal variation in water distribution. Naturally, the distribution of precipitation across the planet is very uneven, causing constant variations in water availability in respective locations.
Changes in precipitation affect the timing and magnitude of floods and droughts, shift runoff processes, and alter groundwater recharge rates.
Vegetation patterns and growth rates will be directly affected by shifts in precipitation amount and distribution, which will in turn affect agriculture as well as natural ecosystems. Decreased precipitation will deprive areas of water causing water tables to fall and reservoirs of wetlands, rivers, and lakes to empty. The human population on Earth is expanding exponentially which goes hand in hand with the degradation of the environment at large measures.
Humanity's appetite for needs is disarranging the environment's natural equilibrium. Production industries are venting smoke and discharging chemicals that are polluting water resources. The smoke that is emitted into the atmosphere holds detrimental gases such as carbon monoxide and sulphur dioxide.
The high levels of pollution in the atmosphere form layers that are eventually absorbed into the atmosphere. Organic compounds such as chlorofluorocarbons CFCs have generated an unwanted opening in the ozone layer, which emits higher levels of ultraviolet radiation putting the globe at large threat.
The available fresh water being affected by the climate is also being stretched across an ever-increasing global population. Even though some areas may see an increase in freshwater supply from an uneven distribution of precipitation increase, an increased use of water supply is expected.
An increased population means increased withdrawals from the water supply for domestic, agricultural, and industrial uses, the largest of these being agriculture,  believed to be the major non-climate driver of environmental change and water deterioration. The next 50 years will likely be the last period of rapid agricultural expansion , but the larger and wealthier population over this time will demand more agriculture.
Population increase over the last two decades, at least in the United States, has also been accompanied by a shift to an increase in urban areas from rural areas,  which concentrates the demand for water into certain areas, and puts stress on the fresh water supply from industrial and human contaminants.
Agriculture is dependent on available soil moisture , which is directly affected by climate dynamics, with precipitation being the input in this system and various processes being the output, such as evapotranspiration , surface runoff , drainage, and percolation into groundwater.
Changes in climate, especially the changes in precipitation and evapotranspiration predicted by climate models, will directly affect soil moisture, surface runoff, and groundwater recharge.
In areas with decreasing precipitation as predicted by the climate models, soil moisture may be substantially reduced. Irrigation increases salt and nutrient content in areas that would not normally be affected, and damages streams and rivers from damming and removal of water.
Fertilizer enters both human and livestock waste streams that eventually enter groundwater, while nitrogen, phosphorus, and other chemicals from fertilizer can acidify both soils and water. Certain agricultural demands may increase more than others with an increasingly wealthier global population, and meat is one commodity expected to double global food demand by ,  which directly affects the global supply of fresh water. Cows need water to drink, more if the temperature is high and humidity is low, and more if the production system the cow is in is extensive, since finding food takes more effort.
Water is needed in processing of the meat, and also in the production of feed for the livestock. Manure can contaminate bodies of freshwater, and slaughterhouses, depending on how well they are managed, contribute waste such as blood, fat, hair, and other bodily contents to supplies of fresh water.
The transfer of water from agricultural to urban and suburban use raises concerns about agricultural sustainability, rural socioeconomic decline, food security, an increased carbon footprint from imported food, and decreased foreign trade balance. The issue of the depletion of fresh water has stimulated increased efforts in water management. Water supply systems, as they exist now, were based on the assumptions of the current climate, and built to accommodate existing river flows and flood frequencies.
Reservoirs are operated based on past hydrologic records, and irrigation systems on historical temperature, water availability, and crop water requirements; these may not be a reliable guide to the future. Re-examining engineering designs, operations, optimizations, and planning, as well as re-evaluating legal, technical, and economic approaches to manage water resources are very important for the future of water management in response to water degradation.
Another approach is water privatization ; despite its economic and cultural effects, service quality and overall quality of the water can be more easily controlled and distributed. Rationality and sustainability is appropriate, and requires limits to overexploitation and pollution and efforts in conservation.
Bassett, M. Bowen, D. Crummey, J. Isaacson, D. Johnson, P. Lamb, M. Saul, and A. Meanings of environmental terms. Journal of Environmental Quality — The International Strategy for Disaster Reduction. Retrieved Moreover, we have unleashed a mass extinction event, the sixth in roughly million years, wherein many current life forms could be annihilated or at least committed to extinction by the end of this century.
The overarching driver of species extinction is human population growth and increasing per capita consumption. Much less frequently mentioned are, however, the ultimate drivers of those immediate causes of biotic destruction, namely, human overpopulation and continued population growth, and overconsumption, especially by the rich. These drivers, all of which trace to the fiction that perpetual growth can occur on a finite planet, are themselves increasing rapidly.
The Guardian. Retrieved September 10, The New York Times. Retrieved June 21, The Huffington Post. The cost of ecological degradation is not considered in the price we pay for food, yet we are still subsidizing fisheries and agriculture. Frontiers in Conservation Science. Live Science. Retrieved January 27, Rome: FAO. Archived from the original PDF on 4 October December Natural Hazards.
Global Water Resource Issues. Cambridge UP, Biosystems Engineering
What is Industrial Pollution?
The constant pollution of the air has very negative effects on nature and on human health. Those long-term and medium-term effects have become problems that are difficult to solve. In this article, we are listing the main 10 negative effects that air pollution is causing worldwide:. Probably global warming is one of the most worrying effects for scientists and environmentalists. Global warming is a direct consequence of the greenhouse effect, which is produced by the high emission of CO 2 and methane into the atmosphere. Most of these emissions are produced by the industry, so this can be remedied by social responsibility and action by companies and factories.
Emissions from cars, trucks and other engines are a primary source of harmful pollution. Diesel exhaust from goods movement — specifically trucks, trains and marine sources — is of particular concern. Environmental Protection Agency EPA has found that diesel emissions contribute to health problems , including premature mortality, aggravated heart and lung disease, and increased respiratory symptoms, particularly for children, the elderly, outdoor workers and other sensitive populations. Protections at the federal, state and local levels, as well as private-sector mitigation, can make an enormous difference in protecting health. Since the s, the federal government has limited pollution from a range of sources, including power plants, industrial facilities, cars, trucks and off-road engines. Health and quality of life benefits from these protections have been substantial. All vehicles and engines operating in the United States must comply with emissions standards for specific pollutants, including smog, soot and greenhouse gases.
10 Serious Effects of Air Pollution on the Environment
The purpose of this study is environmental impact assessment of the industrial estate development planning. This cross-sectional study was conducted in in Isfahan province, Iran. GIS and matrix methods were applied.
Technology developed rapidly, science became advanced, and the manufacturing age came into view. With all of these came one more effect, industrial pollution. Earlier, industries were small factories that produced smoke as the primary pollutant.
Environmental issues in India
One of the most compelling reasons for studying environmental science and management is the fact that, in the view of many leading authorities, we are now experiencing an environmental crisis; indeed, many authors have claimed that the present environmental crisis is unprecedented in its magnitude, pace and severity Park Awareness of this environmental crisis has grown since the s, partly as a result of the prominence given to major so-called 'environmental' disasters such as the Sahelian droughts of the s and s and the nuclear accident at Chernobyl in Consequently, a wide range of environmental problems has emerged; those problems include anthropogenic climate change 'global warming' , the depletion of stratospheric ozone the 'ozone hole' , the acidification of surface waters 'acid rain' , the destruction of tropical forests, the depletion and extinction of species, and the precipitous decline of biodiversity. Yet, while all of these problems have physical environmental manifestations, their causes - and their potential solutions - are invariably bound up with human attitudes, beliefs, values, needs, desires, expectations, and behaviours. Thus the symptoms of the environmental crisis cannot be regarded purely as physical problems requiring solutions by environmental 'specialists'; instead, they are intrinsically human problems and they are intimately related to the question of what it means to be human.
Environmental degradation is the deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources such as air , water and soil ; the destruction of ecosystems ; habitat destruction ; the extinction of wildlife ; and pollution. It is defined as any change or disturbance to the environment perceived to be deleterious or undesirable. Environmental degradation is one of the ten threats officially cautioned by the High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change of the United Nations. The United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction defines environmental degradation as "the reduction of the capacity of the environment to meet social and ecological objectives, and needs". When natural habitats are destroyed or natural resources are depleted, the environment is degraded. Efforts to counteract this problem include environmental protection and environmental resources management. Scientists assert that human activity has pushed the earth into a sixth mass extinction event.
Soil pollution, its effects on our future and what we can do to reduce it
We tend to look skywards when talking about pollution, but this problem is not confined to our skies. The soil in which our fruit and vegetables grow is also suffering its consequences, the effects of which getting to us directly, for instance, through the aforementioned foodstuffs. The time has come to look after what lies under our feet! Soil pollution is mostly caused by chemical substances produced by human activity. The soil is the skin of the earth, a mantle full of scars, thousand-year-old wrinkles and more recent injuries caused both by man and nature itself.
There are many environmental issues in India. Air pollution , water pollution , garbage domestically prohibited goods and pollution of the natural environment are all challenges for India. Nature is also causing some drastic effects on India. The situation was worse between through According to data collected and environmental assessments studied by World Bank experts, between through , India has made some of the fastest progress in addressing its environmental issues and improving its environmental quality in the world.
Разница между ураном и плутонием. Ответа не последовало. Сьюзан повернулась к Соши. - Выход в Интернет.
Весь мир для нее превратился в одно смутное, медленно перемещающееся пятно. Увидев их, Джабба сразу превратился в разъяренного быка: - Я не зря создал систему фильтров. - Сквозь строй приказал долго жить, - безучастно произнес Фонтейн. - Это уже не новость, директор. - Джабба сплюнул.
- Плеснуть чуточку водки. - No, gracias. - Gratis? - по-прежнему увещевал бармен.