File Name: specificity of sprint and agility training methods .zip
A training method is the form of exercise you select to improve your fitness. The training method selected has a significant impact on training outcomes. Training must be relevant to your goals, this refers to the training principle of specificity.
- Specificity of Sprint and Agility Training Methods
- Specificity of sprint and agility training methods
- Training Methods & Types Of Training
Eighteen male professional soccer players took part in this study. Unloaded and resisted sprinting speeds at 5-, , , and m, change of direction COD speed, and performance in the squat jump SJ , countermovement jump CMJ , and horizontal jump HJ were assessed pre- and post- a 5-week training period. Magnitude based inference with the effect sizes were used for data analysis. Meaningful improvements were observed in the COD speed test for both training groups comparing pre- and post-measures. In both unloaded and resisted sprints, meaningful decreases were observed in the sprinting times for all distances tested.
Specificity of Sprint and Agility Training Methods
Eighteen male professional soccer players took part in this study. Unloaded and resisted sprinting speeds at 5-, , , and m, change of direction COD speed, and performance in the squat jump SJ , countermovement jump CMJ , and horizontal jump HJ were assessed pre- and post- a 5-week training period. Magnitude based inference with the effect sizes were used for data analysis. Meaningful improvements were observed in the COD speed test for both training groups comparing pre- and post-measures.
In both unloaded and resisted sprints, meaningful decreases were observed in the sprinting times for all distances tested. This study shows that a mixed training approach which comprises exercises and workloads able to produce positive adaptations in different phases of sprinting can be a very effective strategy in professional soccer players.
Moreover, the possibility of combining optimum power loads with resisted sprints and plyometrics emerges as a novel and suitable option for coaches and sport scientists, due to the applicability and efficiency of this strength-power training approach. Mixed training methods are widely recognized as efficient alternatives to improve neuromuscular performance during complex abilities such as maximal sprints and jumps Newton and Kraemer, ; Saez de Villarreal et al.
Therefore, coaches and sport scientists have been making significant efforts to identify the best combinations between different modes of strength-power exercises and training strategies Newton and Kraemer, ; Saez de Villarreal et al. Recent studies have shown that the concomitant use of traditional lifts e.
In this context, it seems that the exercise selection plays a key role in determining the magnitude and direction of the expected adaptations Young et al. As such, the implementation of functional exercises which better mimic or at least reproduce the mechanical characteristics of dynamic sport tasks seems to be an essential and critical issue in elite sports Young, For example, the ability to orient the resultant ground reaction force vector with a forward orientation over the acceleration has been considered as a determinant factor of maximal sprint performance Morin et al.
From these data, it is plausible that the chronic use of horizontally oriented exercises e. Indeed, a program exclusively composed of horizontal plyometrics could significantly increase the short-distance acceleration ability i. Likewise, resisted sprint training with different workloads i. More recently, some authors have suggested the use of the optimum power loads OPL i. Essentially, this recommendation is based on two underlying reasons: 1 the well-established effects of this range of loads capable of producing significant enhancements at both ends of the force-velocity curve on athletic capacities Wilson et al.
More importantly, it has been reported that this method may meaningfully reduce the concurrent effects between power and endurance adaptations, commonly experienced by professional soccer players during their preseason practices Loturco et al. Despite these positive and encouraging premises, there is a lack of applied research investigating the potential effects of combining OPL with speed-specific exercises such as resisted sprints and plyometric drills i.
Considering the multifactorial nature of sprinting speed Cronin and Hansen, ; Markovic et al. Owing to the recognized efficacy of these respective exercise strategies Wilson et al.
Twenty-two male professional soccer players from the same club took part in this study. Group allocation was performed by tossing a coin. The study was approved by the Anhanguera-Bandeirante University Ethics Committee and the participants signed an informed consent form prior to research commencement.
In this study, a parallel two-group, randomized, longitudinal design was conducted to test the effectiveness of two mixed power-oriented training programs on the neuromuscular performance of elite soccer players.
All athletes had been previously familiarized with the performance tests. During the resisted sprints, athletes carried a sled towing device attached to a waistcoat as described elsewhere Cronin and Hansen, Prior to all testing sessions, a general and specific warm-up routine was performed, involving light running 5-min at a self-selected pace and submaximal attempts at each testing exercise e.
During the experimental period, all soccer players performed 12 power-oriented training sessions. A typical weekly training schedule, as well as the detailed power-oriented training program across the 5-week preseason period, are presented in Table 1 and Figure 1 , respectively. Table 1. Typical weekly training program for the soccer players during the 5 weeks of intervention. Figure 1. Training content across the 5-week preseason period for both groups of training.
In the CMJ, the soccer players were instructed to execute a downward movement followed by a complete extension of the legs.
A total of five attempts were allowed for each jump, interspersed by s. Athletes performed the HJ starting from a standing position. They commenced the jump by swinging their arms and bending their knees to provide maximal forward drive. Each athlete executed three attempts, interspersed by s intervals, and the longest jump was retained for the analyses. A 5-min interval between sets was provided. The technical specification of the MPP analysis and its calculation have been described previously Loturco et al.
Due to its established relationships with speed and power performances Loturco et al. Five pairs of photocells Smart Speed, Fusion Equipment, AUS were positioned at distances of 0, 5-, , , and m along the sprinting course. To avoid weather influences, the sprint tests were performed on an indoor running track.
A 5-min rest interval was allowed between the two attempts and the fastest time for both types was considered for the analyses. The athletes were required to decelerate and accelerate as fast as possible without losing body stability. Two maximal attempts were performed with a 5-min rest interval between attempts. Starting from a standing position with the front foot placed 0.
The fastest time from the two attempts was retained for analyses. Figure 2. A schematic presentation of the change of direction COD speed test.
The gray circles represent the position of the photocells. Additionally, to determine the magnitude of the differences between the groups pre- and post-training and its delta changes, the standardized differences ES: Cohen's d were calculated Hopkins et al.
All data presented normal distribution. On average, soccer players of both training groups achieved their maximum MPP values with a load corresponding to Table 2. Figure 3 depicts the comparisons of the unloaded sprint times in 5-, , , and m pre- and post- the preseason period for both power-oriented training groups.
Both training groups demonstrated a likely to almost certainly decrease in the sprint times comparing pre- and post-assessments. Figure 3. Comparisons of the unloaded sprint times in 5-, , , and m pre- and post- the preseason period for both power-oriented training groups. Both training groups demonstrated an almost certainly decrease in the resisted sprint times at the end of the preseason training period.
Figure 4. OPL: optimum power load; RS: resisted sprint; PL: vertical and horizontal plyometrics; middle black lines represent the mean values between two groups in the pre-measures; gray areas represent the smallest worthwhile change 0. Figure 5. Comparisons of the delta changes in the variables tested between the two power-oriented training regimes. Gray areas represent the smallest worthwhile change 0. To our knowledge, this is the first study to compare the effects of two mixed training strategies, which combined OPL and different types of speed-specific exercises, on neuromechanical capacities of elite soccer players.
From a general perspective, both training modes were effective in improving the speed-related performance indices during the short preseason.
In contrast, vertical and horizontal jumping abilities increased meaningfully only in the athletes exposed to plyometric exercises, showing to be highly dependent on training specificity. Lastly, in both groups, the mechanical variables related to muscle power development i. The absence of worthwhile improvements in muscle power capacity seems to be commonplace in investigations performed throughout soccer preseasons Faude et al.
Importantly, it appears that this phenomenon is independent of training strategy, age-category or player's background i. It is probable that the high volume of predominantly aerobic workouts technical and tactical sessions typically performed during these phases precludes the proper development of muscle power, due to the well-documented concurrent training effects between strength and endurance adaptations Fyfe et al.
Thus, when power capacity is the main objective of the training period, it is highly recommended that coaches consider the possibility of reducing the relative content of soccer-specific activities, while at the same time increasing the volume and frequency of neuromuscular training Bird et al. Vertical and horizontal jump distances are regularly used as valid and reliable measures of leg explosiveness in team sport athletes Maulder and Cronin, ; Loturco et al. Besides this, the considerable number of jumps executed during training and official matches makes it essential to asses and develop this capacity in professional soccer player Liu et al.
These positive results have also been observed in numerous studies involving elite soccer players, who similarly reported significant enhancements in unloaded jump performance after executing isolated or combined e. For many authors, the specificity of these neuromechanical responses reinforces the importance of combining traditional lifts with movements that make use of the stretch-shortening cycle, mainly when there is a clear intention to maximize the jumping potential Baker, ; Maio Alves et al.
Therefore, coaches and sport scientists interested in improving the unloaded jump capacities of professional soccer players are strongly encouraged to systematically include plyometric exercises in their strength-power training routines Loturco et al. The most important finding reported here is that, independent of the training intervention, both groups reported substantial increases in maximal sprint and COD performances.
Notably, the speed improvements occurred over a wide range of distances from 5- to m , without meaningful differences between-groups. To some extent, these outcomes may be explained by analyzing more closely the experimental training designs. From a mechanical perspective, both horizontally oriented exercises and heavy sled resisted sprint tend to produce greater increases in the initial phase of sprinting, which is possibly related to the critical importance of horizontal force production during this phase Bachero-Mena and Gonzalez-Badillo, ; Loturco et al.
Indeed, previous investigations have shown that horizontal plyometrics and resisted sprints with heavier loads i. In contrast, vertical jumps and resisted sprints with lighter loads i. From these results, it is suggested that the combination of exercises and workloads able to induce positive responses over different phases of sprint running may be a very useful strategy in top-level sports.
This is particularly true in modern soccer, where professional players are required to progressively develop their speed-related abilities to cope with the demands related to their involvement in high-intensity match and training activities Barnes et al. It is worth emphasizing that maximal sprint running depends directly on relative mechanical power production i. Yet, in this context, many studies involving elite athletes have already reported strong positive correlations between these variables Cronin and Hansen, ; Loturco et al.
However, interestingly, the meaningful improvements in speed reported above, occurred regardless of the absence of increases in muscle power capacity. Based on these results, it may be inferred that both training schemes could lead to better and more effective application of the resultant force vector onto the ground while sprinting, which has been previously described as a key determinant of sprint performance Morin et al.
As such, according to the training designs Figure 1 , it is possible that our subjects initially improved their ability to apply force with a forward orientation over the distinct acceleration phases and Morin et al. Although the mechanisms underlying these phenomena are not fully understood, the prevalent view is that the force vector theory may play a crucial role in modulating the chronic training responses Randell et al.
As with many investigations performed with top-level athletes during their professional training routines, this study is limited by several factors, such as the absence of a control group, the small sample size i. Nevertheless, it is critical to emphasize that both mixed training modes used herein were effective in increasing the speed-related performance of professional soccer players during a short preseason, which has been considered a great challenge and an obvious goal for coaches and sport scientists Barnes et al.
In summary, this study shows that a mixed training approach which comprises exercises and workloads able to produce positive adaptations in different phases of sprinting can be a very effective strategy in team-sports, especially in professional soccer, where maximal acceleration and speed capacities play determinant roles in optimizing performance Barnes et al.
Moreover, the possibility of combining optimum power loads with these complementary workouts i. Coaches and sport scientists are constantly seeking practical and efficient alternatives to improve maximal running speed and acceleration capacities in team-sport athletes.
Specificity of sprint and agility training methods
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Soccer players must be able to effectively perform several complex dynamic movements with i. Performance of such complex dynamic movements is linked to coordination abilities; suggesting players with higher coordination levels have a higher ability to acquire sport-specific skills and quicker mastering of new movements Arazi et al. Moreover, scientific literature indicates physical and technical components in soccer players are related to biological maturation Figueiredo et al. In this sense, during the adolescent maturation stage, the accelerated growth in the length of limbs contributes to a transitory decline in motor coordination and physical performance in youth soccer players Philippaerts et al. Previous research showed that youth soccer players aged between have higher levels of performance in lower-limb coordination tests in comparison with physically active children belonging to the same age cohort Mirkov et al. These results suggest that chronic training in soccer allows for the development of motor coordination abilities as a result of a possible window of trainability associated with neural accelerated development Cortis et al.
IntroductionS traight sprinting speed and agility are considered important qualities in many sports. Sprinting in a straight line is a relatively closed skill involving.
Training Methods & Types Of Training
Supplementing regular training with short-duration sprint-agility training leads to a substantial increase in repeated sprint-agility performance with national level badminton players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 23 5 : , Agility profile in sub-elite under soccer players: is SAQ training adequate to improve sprint, change of direction speed and reactive agility performance? Research in Sports Medicine 24 4 : , Effects of sprint training on sprint ability and on agility strength and power.
Metrics details. The ability to perform a rapid change of direction COD is a critical skill in numerous court- and field-based sports. The aim of this review is to investigate the effect of different physical training forms on COD performance. Studies were eligible if they met the following criteria: 1 a COD test measuring performance before and after the training intervention, with specific description of the test in terms of length and number of changes in a direction with specified angles, 2 involve training intervention like plyometric, strength, sprint, specific COD training, or a combination of these training forms targeting the lower extremities, 3 the study had to state training background in terms of which sport they participated in and their competitive level and a detailed methodological description. Non-English articles were excluded. Percentage difference and effect sizes were calculated in order to compare the effects of different training interventions. A range of studies performing plyometrics, strength, sprint, specific COD training, training with post-activation potentiation or a combination of these training forms were examined.
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Young and M. Mcdowell and B.
Therefore, developing an evidence base for understanding training methods to enhance short-sprint performance is key for practitioners. However, current systematic reviews are limited by 1 a lack of focus on football code athletes, 2 a lack of consideration of all training modalities and 3 a failure to account for the normal training practices undertaken by intervention groups within their analysis. Therefore, this review aimed to 1 conduct a systematic review of the scientific literature evaluating training interventions upon short-sprint performance within football code athletes, 2 undertake a meta-analysis to assess the magnitude of change of sport-sprint performance following training interventions and 3 identify how moderator variables affect the training response. A systematic search of electronic databases was conducted. This identified the magnitude and direction of the individual training effects of intervention subgroups primary, secondary, combined-specific, tertiary and combined training methods on short-sprint performance while considering moderator variables i. Significant improvements small-large were found between pre- and post-training in short-sprint performance for the combined, secondary, tertiary and combined-specific training methods. No significant effect was found for primary or sport only training.
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