File Name: types of vitamins and their deficiency diseases .zip
Vitamin deficiencies remain major etiological factors in the global burden of disease, especially in low- and middle-income countries.
What are fat-soluble vitamins?
Vitamin deficiency is the condition of a long-term lack of a vitamin. When caused by not enough vitamin intake it is classified as a primary deficiency , whereas when due to an underlying disorder such as malabsorption it is called a secondary deficiency.
An underlying disorder may be metabolic — as in a genetic defect for converting tryptophan to niacin — or from lifestyle choices that increase vitamin needs, such as smoking or drinking alcohol. Conversely hypervitaminosis refers to symptoms caused by vitamin intakes in excess of needs, especially for fat-soluble vitamins that can accumulate in body tissues. The history of the discovery of vitamin deficiencies progressed over centuries from observations that certain conditions — for example, scurvy — could be prevented or treated with certain foods having high content of a necessary vitamin , to the identification and description of specific molecules essential for life and health.
During the 20th century , several scientists were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine or the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their roles in the discovery of vitamins. A number of regions have published guidelines defining vitamin deficiencies and advising specific intakes for healthy people, with different recommendations for women, men, infants, the elderly, and during pregnancy and breast feeding including Japan , the European Union , the United States, and Canada.
There were periodic updates, culminating in the Dietary Reference Intakes. Together, these are part of Dietary Reference Intakes. For these, an Adequate Intake is shown, based on an assumption that what healthy people consume is sufficient. Food fortification is the process of adding micronutrients essential trace elements and vitamins to food as a public health policy which aims to reduce the number of people with dietary deficiencies within a population.
Staple foods of a region can lack particular nutrients due to the soil of the region or from inherent inadequacy of a normal diet. Addition of micronutrients to staples and condiments can prevent large-scale deficiency diseases in these cases. Vitamin fortification programs exist in one or more countries for folate, niacin, riboflavin, thiamin, vitamin A, vitamin B 6 , vitamin B 12 , vitamin D and vitamin E.
As of December 21, , 81 countries required food fortification with one or more vitamins. The product is referred to as golden rice Oryza sativa. When eaten, beta-carotene is a provitamin , converted to retinol vitamin A. The concept is that in areas of the world where vitamin A deficiency is common , growing and eating this rice would reduce the rates of vitamin A deficiency, particularly its effect on childhood vision problems. Some vitamins cause acute or chronic toxicity , a condition called hypervitaminosis , which occurs mainly for fat-soluble vitamins if over-consumed by excessive supplementation.
Hypervitaminosis A  and hypervitaminosis D  are the most common examples. Vitamin D toxicity does not result from sun exposure or consuming foods rich in vitamin D, but rather from excessive intake of vitamin D supplements, possibly leading to hypercalcemia , nausea, weakness, and kidney stones. The United States, European Union and Japan, among other countries, have established "tolerable upper intake levels" for those vitamins which have documented toxicity. In , the Scottish surgeon James Lind discovered that citrus foods helped prevent scurvy , a particularly deadly disease in which collagen is not properly formed, causing poor wound healing, bleeding of the gums , severe pain, and death.
This led to the nickname limey for British sailors. Lind's discovery, however, was not widely accepted by individuals in the Royal Navy's Arctic expeditions in the 19th century, where it was widely believed that scurvy could be prevented by practicing good hygiene , regular exercise, and maintaining the morale of the crew while on board, rather than by a diet of fresh food.
During the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the use of deprivation studies allowed scientists to isolate and identify a number of vitamins. Lipid from fish oil was used to cure rickets in rats , and the fat-soluble nutrient was called "antirachitic A". Thus, the first "vitamin" bioactivity ever isolated, which cured rickets, was initially called "vitamin A"; however, the bioactivity of this compound is now called vitamin D.
Lunin studied the effects of scurvy at the University of Tartu. He fed mice an artificial mixture of all the separate constituents of milk known at that time, namely the proteins , fats , carbohydrates , and salts. The mice that received only the individual constituents died, while the mice fed by milk itself developed normally.
He made a conclusion that substances essential for life must be present in milk other than the known principal ingredients. However, his conclusions were rejected by his advisor, Gustav von Bunge. In East Asia , where polished white rice was the common staple food of the middle class, beriberi resulting from lack of vitamin B 1 was endemic. In , Takaki Kanehiro , a British-trained medical doctor of the Imperial Japanese Navy , observed that beriberi was endemic among low-ranking crew who often ate nothing but rice, but not among officers who consumed a Western-style diet.
With the support of the Japanese Navy, he experimented using crews of two battleships ; one crew was fed only white rice, while the other was fed a diet of meat, fish, barley, rice, and beans. The group that ate only white rice documented crew members with beriberi and 25 deaths, while the latter group had only 14 cases of beriberi and no deaths.
This convinced Takaki and the Japanese Navy that diet was the cause of beriberi, but they mistakenly believed that sufficient amounts of protein prevented it. In , the first vitamin complex was isolated by Japanese scientist Umetaro Suzuki , who succeeded in extracting a water-soluble complex of micronutrients from rice bran and named it aberic acid later Orizanin. He published this discovery in a Japanese scientific journal. In Polish-born biochemist Casimir Funk , working in London, isolated the same complex of micronutrients and proposed the complex be named "vitamine".
It was later to be known as vitamin B 3 niacin , though he described it as "anti-beri-beri-factor" which would today be called thiamine or vitamin B 1. Funk proposed the hypothesis that other diseases, such as rickets, pellagra, coeliac disease, and scurvy could also be cured by vitamins. Max Nierenstein a friend and reader of Biochemistry at Bristol University reportedly suggested the "vitamine" name from "vital amine".
In , Jack Cecil Drummond proposed that the final "e" be dropped to deemphasize the "amine" reference, after researchers began to suspect that not all "vitamines" in particular, vitamin A have an amine component. In , Paul Karrer elucidated the correct structure for beta-carotene , the main precursor of vitamin A, and identified other carotenoids.
For their investigations on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B 2 , Karrer and Haworth jointly received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Vitamin deficiency Other names Avitaminosis, hypovitaminosis Specialty Endocrinology Vitamin deficiency is the condition of a long-term lack of a vitamin. See also: Food fortification. Retrieved 15 February Retrieved 9 February EFSA Journal. Retrieved Retrieved 4 February Food Fortification Initiative.
Retrieved 3 February Global Fortification Data Exchange. The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 5 October Retrieved 18 February Retrieved 5 July FR page " PDF.
US Food and Drug Administration. European Food Safety Authority. Retrieved 11 February National Institute of Nutrition, India. American Academy of Family Physicians. Retrieved 12 February Retrieved 5 February Retrieved 6 February Archived from the original on Retrieved 7 February National Institutes of Health. Retrieved January 11, Retrieved 2 February Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology.
Washington, D. C: National Academies Press. Retrieved 20 March National Academy Press. The Golden Rice Project. Retrieved 14 February In: Carotenoids in Nature. Subcellular Biochemistry. Nutrition Reviews. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 1 February The quarry run to earth". Terrors of the table: the curious history of nutrition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Retrieved 5 November The early years of discovery".
Clinical Chemistry. Distillations Magazine. Retrieved 22 March Tokyo Kagaku Kaishi. The vitamins: fundamental aspects in nutrition and health.
A vitamin is an organic molecule or a set of molecules closely related chemically, i. Essential nutrients cannot be synthesized in the organism, either at all or not in sufficient quantities, and therefore must be obtained through the diet. Vitamin C can be synthesized by some species but not by others; it is not a vitamin in the first instance but is in the second. The term vitamin does not include the three other groups of essential nutrients : minerals , essential fatty acids , and essential amino acids. For example, there are eight vitamers of vitamin E : four tocopherols and four tocotrienols. Some sources list fourteen vitamins, by including choline ,  but major health organizations list thirteen: vitamin A as all- trans - retinol , all- trans -retinyl-esters, as well as all- trans - beta-carotene and other provitamin A carotenoids , vitamin B 1 thiamine , vitamin B 2 riboflavin , vitamin B 3 niacin , vitamin B 5 pantothenic acid , vitamin B 6 pyridoxine , vitamin B 7 biotin , vitamin B 9 folic acid or folate , vitamin B 12 cobalamins , vitamin C ascorbic acid , vitamin D calciferols , vitamin E tocopherols and tocotrienols , and vitamin K phylloquinone and menaquinones.
Service Unavailable in EU region
We include products we think are useful for our readers. If you buy through links on this page, we may earn a small commission. Fat-soluble vitamins are vitamins A, D, E, and K. They are present in foods containing fats.
Vitamin , any of several organic substances that are necessary in small quantities for normal health and growth in higher forms of animal life. Vitamins are distinct in several ways from other biologically important compounds such as protein s, carbohydrate s, and lipid s. Although these latter substances also are indispensable for proper bodily functions, almost all of them can be synthesized by animals in adequate quantities.
Moreover, the Global Hunger Index Report ranked India 20th amongst leading countries with a serious hunger situation. These facts hint dire consequences for mortality rate, productivity and economic growth. Therefore, nutritional deficiency diseases have obtained an important place in various government competitive exams.
Vitamins are a group of substances that are needed for normal cell function, growth, and development. There are 13 essential vitamins.
Стратмор повернулся, и Сьюзан сразу же его потеряла. В страхе она вытянула вперед руки, но коммандер куда-то исчез. Там, где только что было его плечо, оказалась черная пустота. Она шагнула вперед, но и там была та же пустота.
- Я… я… - Совсем растерявшись, он сел на край постели и сжал руки. Кровать застонала под его весом.